Modernity and the Road to War (1890-1914). Chapter 24. A Few Major Themes of the Period. Imperialism begins to have an effect on European psyche. Alliances begin to stretch diplomacy to the breaking point. Antisemitism becomes a useful tool in political rhetoric.
How did developments in social life, art, intellectual life and politics at the turn of the century produce instability and set the backdrop for war?
Fluctuations in Traditional Society Spark Debate
Reforming Marriage – in order to bring about a better society
The New Woman
Sciences of the Modern Self
Father of psychoanalysis
Psyche is made up of 3 competing parts.
Ego: most in touch with need to work and survive.
Id: contains instinctive drives and sexual energies.
Super Ego: the conscience
The “talking cure” gives rise to general acceptance of talking out ones problems.
Freud thinks human are driven to destruction and death.
How did ideas about the self and about personal life change in the beginning of the 20th century?
Why do you think we begin to see these changes around this time?
Pragmatists and Relativists pose challenge to entrenched ideas about policy making, reform, and the conduct of government.
Some declare themselves neither pragmatist or relativist but nihilist.
Changes That Have Been Occurring
V.I. Lenin: advanced his theory that a highly disciplined socialist elite would lead a lightly industrialized Russia into socialism – rather than working people as a whole.
At a meeting of Russian Marxists in 1903 he manipulates his opponents into walking out, thus takes over the party.
His faction becomes the Bolsheviks (majority) and his opponents become the Mensheviks (minority).
Analyze the major factors responsible for the rise of antisemitism in 19th century Europe.
Emancipation and Integration Leads to Jewish Success
Such Jewish involvement in society leads to suspicion and scapegoating during the economic crisis of the 1870s.
Nationalism and the Rise of the Nation-State
France and the Dreyfus Affair (1894)