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Chapter One: Moral Reasons Review. Applying Ethics: A Text with Readings (10 th ed.) Julie C. Van Camp, Jeffrey Olen, Vincent Barry Cengage Learning/Wadsworth. What is Ethical Relativism?.

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chapter one moral reasons review

Chapter One:Moral ReasonsReview

Applying Ethics: A Text with Readings (10th ed.)

Julie C. Van Camp, Jeffrey Olen, Vincent Barry

Cengage Learning/Wadsworth

what is ethical relativism
What is Ethical Relativism?
  • Ethical relativism: Moral truths are not absolutely true but true relative to some particular standards.
  • Cultural relativism: Moral truths are not absolutely true but are relative to a particular society.
  • Individual relativism: Moral truths are not absolute but relative to individuals.
how can we understand fairness
How can we understand “Fairness”?
  • The Golden Rule
  • Kantian respect for persons
    • Never use other people merely as a means to your own end
    • Recognize that persons are autonomous beings
what are different approaches to explaining individual rights
What are different approaches to explaining individual rights?
  • Natural Rights: rights we are all born with (Locke, Jefferson, Nozick)
  • Mutual Agreement behind the Veil of Ignorance (Rawls)
      • Equality principle
      • Difference principle
moral virtue aristotle
“Moral Virtue” Aristotle
  • How do we acquire moral virtues?
    • They are acquired by exercising them
  • What is moral goodness?
    • A quality disposing us to act in the best way when we are dealing with pleasures and pains
  • What is the definition of “virtue”?
    • a disposition of the soul in which, when it has to choose among actions and feelings, it observes the mean relative to us
respect for persons immanuel kant
“Respect for Persons”Immanuel Kant
  • What are formulations of the Categorical Imperative?
    • Never act in such a way that I could not also will that my maxim should be a universal law
    • Act so that you treat humanities as an end and never merely as a means
    • The idea of the will of every rational being as making universal law
utilitarianism john stuart mill
“Utilitarianism”John Stuart Mill
  • What is the Principle of Utility?
    • The Greatest Happiness Principle
    • The moral principle that we should produce the greatest balance of happiness over unhappiness, giving equal consideration to the happiness and unhappiness of everyone who will be affected by our actions.
  • What is “happiness”?
    • pleasure and the absence of pain
a theory of justice john rawls
“A Theory of Justice”John Rawls
  • What is Rawls’ central conception of justice?
    • Justice asfairness
    • Developed behind a “veil of ignorance”
  • What are Rawls’two principles of justice?
    • Each has equal right to most extensive basic liberty compatible with similar liberty for others
    • Inequalities are to everyone’s advantage and attached to positions open to all
the ethics of care virginia held
“The Ethics of Care”Virginia Held

What are the key features of the ethics of care?

  • Moral salience of attending to needs of others for whom we take responsibility
  • Values emotion, rather than rejecting it
  • Questions universalistic and abstract theories, favoring individualistic approaches
  • Rethinks public and private spheres
  • Conception of “person” as relational and interdependent, not individualistic