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Accounts Receivable Management

Accounts Receivable Management

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Accounts Receivable Management

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  1. Accounts Receivable Management A / R

  2. JOIN KHALID AZIZ • ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM. • FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. • COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. • CONTACT: • 0322-3385752 • 0312-2302870 • R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN.

  3. JOIN KHALID AZIZ • CRASH CLASSES FOR COMPLETION OF IMPORTANT TOPICS • ICMAP STAGE 1 & 2 • FINANCIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING • JOIN NOW

  4. The Cash Flow Timeline • Order Order Sale Payment Sent Cash • Placed Received Received • Accounts Collection • < Inventory > < Receivable > < Float > • Time ==> • Accounts Disbursement • < Payable > < Float > • Invoice Received Payment Sent Cash Disbursed

  5. Learning Objectives • Define credit policy and indicate its components. • Describe the typical credit-granting sequence. • Apply net present value analysis to credit extension decisions. • Define credit scoring and explain limitations. • List the elements in a credit rating report. • Describe how receivables management can benefit from EDI.

  6. Trade Credit and Shareholder Value • Trade credit arises when goods sold under delayed payment terms • Traced to Romans due to obstacles faced in transferring money through various trading areas • Credit terms are taken for granted today • Value can be added by managing three areas: • aggregate investment in receivables • credit terms • credit standards • Over-investing in receivables can be costly • ...but, if credit terms are not competitive, then lost sales can be costly

  7. Conclusion • Minimize bad debts and outstanding receivables • Maintain financial flexibility • Optimize mix of company assets • Convert receivables to cash in a timely manner • Analyze customer risk • Respond to customer needs

  8. A/R Management and Shareholder Value Marketing Strategy Market Share Obj. Aggregate Inv. in A/R Credit Terms Credit Standards Total Dollar Investment Length of Time to Pay Acceptance of Marg Cust. Max Shareholder Value

  9. Trade vs. Bank Credit • Length of terms • Security • Amounts involved • Resource transferred (goods vs. money) • Extent of analysis

  10. Why Extend Credit? • Financial Motive • Operating Motive • Contracting Motive • Pricing Motive • All reasons are related to market imperfections

  11. Financial Motive • Potential of getting a higher price • Sellers raise capital at lower rates than customers and have cost advantages vis-a-vis banks due to: • similarity of customers • the information gathered in the selling process • lower probability of default (the goods purchased are an essential element of the buyer’s business) • seller can more easily resell product if payment is not made.

  12. Operating Motive • Respond to variable and uncertain demand • Change credit terms rather than: • install extra capacity, • building or depleting inventories, • or forcing customers to wait.

  13. JOIN KHALID AZIZ • CRASH CLASSES FOR COMPLETION OF IMPORTANT TOPICS • ICMAP STAGE 1 & 2 • FINANCIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING • JOIN NOW

  14. Contracting Cost Motive • Buyer gets to inspect goods prior to payment • Seller has less theft with separation of collection and product delivery

  15. Pricing Motive • Change price by changing credit terms

  16. Trends Affecting Trade Credit • Zero net working capital objective • Improved internal and external credit-related information • Electronic commerce

  17. The Credit Decision Process Marketing contact Credit investigation Customer contact for information Finalize written documents, e.g.. security agreements Establish customer credit file Financial analysis Time

  18. Basic Credit Granting Model S - EXP(S) NPV = ----------------- - VCR(S) 1 + iCP Where: NPV = net present value of the credit sale VCR = variable cost ratio S = dollar amount of credit sale EXP = credit administration and collection expense ratio i = daily interest rate CP = collection period for sale

  19. Managing the Credit Policy • Should we extend credit? • Credit policy components • Credit-granting decision

  20. Should We Extend Credit? • Follow industry practice • Extent and form of credit offer • in-house credit card • sell receivables to a factor • captive finance company?

  21. Components of Credit Policy • Development of credit standards • profile of minimally acceptable credit worthy customer • Credit terms • credit period • cash discount • Credit limit • maximum dollar level of credit balances • Collection procedures • how long to wait past due date to initiate collection efforts • methods of contact • whether and at what point to refer account to collection agency

  22. Credit-Granting Decision • Development of credit standards • Gathering necessary information • Credit analysis: applying credit standards • Risk analysis

  23. Grant-Granting Sequence Order and credit request received No Yes Material change in customer status New/increased credit limit Redo credit investigation Yes No Check new A/R total vs credit lmt Size of proposed credit limit Record disposition Large Medium Small No Extend Credit Indepth credit invest. Moderate credit invest. Minimal credit invest. Yes Set up,post A/R, ship

  24. Credit Standards • Based on five C's of Credit • Character • Capital • Capacity • Collateral • Conditions • Determine risk classification system • Link customer evaluations to credit standards

  25. Gathering Information • credit reporting agencies, e.g.. Dun & Bradstreet • credit interchange bureaus, NACM • bank letters • references from other suppliers • financial statements • field data gathered by sales reps

  26. Credit Analysis: Applying the Standards • Nonfinancial • concerned with willingness to pay, character • Financial • ability to pay, financial ratios etc.. (other C’s of credit) • Credit scoring models • Example:Y = .000025(INCOME) + 0.50(PAYHIST) + 0.25(EMPLOYMT)

  27. Emergence of Expert Systems • Example of decision rule:“If gross income is equal to or grater than $20,000 and the applicant has not been delinquent and gross income per household member is equal to or greater than $12,000 and debt/equity ratio is equal to or greater than 30% but less than 50% and personal property is equal to or greater than $50,000, then grant credit.”

  28. Factors Affecting Credit Terms • Competition • Operating cycle • Type of good (raw materials vs finished goods, perishables, etc.) • Seasonality of demand • Consumer acceptance • Cost and pricing • Customer type • Product profit margin

  29. Cash Discounts • The lower the VC, the higher the feasible discount • Based on company’s cost of funds • Consider timing effect when changing discounts • Should be based on product’s price elasticity • Higher the bad debt experience, higher the optimal discount

  30. Practice of Taking Cash Discounts • 51% of firms always took cash discount • 40% sometimes • 9% take discount and pay late • Study found that 4 or 5 companies would be more profitable if cash discount was eliminated

  31. A/R Management in Practice • Discounts appear to be changed to match competitors, not inflation or interest rates • The higher a firm’s contribution margin, the more likely the firm should be to offer discounts. • A price cut is thought to have more impact than instituting a cash discount • The more receivables a firm has, does not necessarily relate to use of penalty fees • The greater amount of receivables does not relate to a more active credit evaluation.

  32. Receivables, Collections, and EDI • If credit approval is delayed... • buyers using EDI purchase orders and JIT manufacturing can encounter serious problems. • sellers can now ship within hours of receiving orders...thus seller must be able to handle electronically transmitted orders. • Seller may also issues electronic invoices and be paid electronically using an EDI-capable bank so that remittance data can be automatically read by seller’s A/R system • Trend is for use of data transmission to automate the cash application process

  33. Summary • Investment in A/R represents a significant investment. • Key aspects outlined • credit policy • credit standards • credit granting sequence • credit limits • credit terms • Management of A/R is influenced by what competitors are doing not by shareholder wealth considerations. • Proper use of NPV techniques can ensure that credit decisions enhance shareholder value.

  34. JOIN KHALID AZIZ • ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM. • FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. • COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. • CONTACT: • 0322-3385752 • 0312-2302870 • R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN.