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Time and Stress Management. What Is Stress?. Stress Psychological, Emotional, Physiological Response Stressors Threatening Environmental Conditions. Why Is Stress Management Important?. Organizational Costs Individual Costs Health Impairment Job Burnout Performance Decline.

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what is stress
What Is Stress?
  • Stress
    • Psychological, Emotional, Physiological Response
  • Stressors
    • Threatening Environmental Conditions
why is stress management important
Why Is StressManagement Important?
  • Organizational Costs
  • Individual Costs
    • Health Impairment
    • Job Burnout
    • Performance Decline
the most stressful jobs
The most stressful jobs

1. US President 176.6

2. Firefighter 110.9

3. Senior executive 108.6

12. Public relations 78.5

16. Advertising account executive 74.6

20. Stockbroker 71.7

42. Advertising sales 59.9

50. College Professor 54.2

103. Market research analyst 42.1

104. Personnel 41.8

173. Accountant 31.1

245. Actuary 20.2

some facts
Some facts
  • 25% of white collar workers and 40% of blue collar workers had a stress-related absence in 1998 at a cost of $12 billion
  • One in three Canadians bet 25-44 claims to be a workaholic
  • The rate of physical and psychological assaults on women in the workplace is 19% higher in Canada than in the US. For men the rate is 400% higher.
experiencing stress
Experiencing stress

STRESSORS

Anticipatory, Encounter,Time, Situational

REACTIONS

Physiological, Psychological

RESILIENCY

Physical

Psychological

Social

exhibit 6 2 model of the stress management process

Potential Stressors

  • Personal Factors
    • Family problems
    • Financial problems
    • Health problems
  • Organizational Factors
    • High stress occupation
    • Job role
    • Overload
    • Under-utilization
    • Role ambiguity
    • Role conflict
    • Responsibility for others
  • Job Environment
    • Poor working conditions
    • Organizational politics
    • Poor work relationships
  • Environmental Factors
    • Economic Uncertainty
    • Technological Change
    • Politics

Experienced Stress

(SYMPTOM AWARENESS)

  • Consequences
  • Psychological
    • Heart Disease
    • Ulcers
    • Headaches
  • Emotional
    • Anxiety
    • Depression
    • Burnout
  • Behavioral
    • Aggression
    • Productivity
    • Avoidance
  • Successful Coping
    • High self esteem
    • Goal accomplishment
    • Feeling of well being
Exhibit 6.2: Model of the Stress Management Process
  • Stress Management
  • Individual
    • Seek help
    • Time management
    • Change jobs
    • Build resiliency
    • Personality
    • Companionship Experience
    • Health (Exercise, diet)
    • Relaxation
    • Recreation
  • Organizational
    • Job Design
    • Selection & Placement
    • Training & Mentoring
    • Team Building
    • Employee Assistance
    • Communicating
    • Wellness Promotion
managing stress objectives
Managing Stress: Objectives
  • Becoming Aware of Negative Stress Symptoms
  • Determining the Sources
  • Determining the Cause
  • And then…
    • Cope temporarily with the stress
    • Eliminate stressors
    • Develop resiliency
how can awareness of stress symptoms be enhanced
How Can Awareness of Stress Symptoms Be Enhanced?
  • Physical Symptoms
  • Psychological Substitutes

Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always

Constant fatigue [] [] [] [] []

Low energy level [] [] [] [] []

Recurring headaches [] [] [] [] []

Gastrointestinal disorders [] [] [] [] []

Bad breath [] [] [] [] []

Sweaty hands or feet [] [] [] [] []

Dizziness [] [] [] [] []

High blood pressure [] [] [] [] []

Pounding heart [] [] [] [] []

sources of stress
Sources of Stress
  • Major Organizational Stressors
    • High-stress Occupations
    • Job Role
    • Interpersonal Relationships
  • Major Personal Stressors
    • Family Problems
    • Financial Problems
    • Health Problems
    • Personality
  • Major Environmental Stressors
    • Economic Uncertainty
    • Political Uncertainties
    • Technological Change
types of stressors causes
Types of Stressors: Causes
  • Time
  • Encounter
  • Situational
  • Anticipatory
resiliency
Resiliency:
  • Physiological
    • Cardiovascular conditioning
    • Proper diet
  • Social
    • Supportive relations
    • Mentors
    • teamwork
  • Psychological
    • Balanced lifestyle
    • Hardy personality
    • Small wins strategy
    • Relaxation techniques
short term strategies
Short term strategies
  • Reframing
  • Imagery
types of stressors and what we can do about them
Types of stressors and what we can do about them
  • Time Stressors
    • Work overload
    • Lack of control
  • Elimination Strategies
    • Principles of time management
    • Delegation
eliminating time stressors time management
Eliminating time stressors:Time management
  • “Effective time management can enable managers to gain control over their time and organize their fragmented, chaotic environment.”
effective time management means
Effective time management means…
  • Spending time on important, not just urgent matters
  • Distinguishing clearly between importance and urgency
  • Focusing on results not methods
  • Not feeling guilty when saying no
effective time management
Effective time management

URGENCY

High Low

High

IMPORTANCE

Low

80 20 rule
80/20 Rule

ActivitiesTime SpentResults

Trivial 80% 20%

Vital 20% 80%

efficient time management
Efficient time management
  • Too little time; too much to do
  • How do I get more done?
schedule
Schedule
  • Schedule Activities
        • Horizontal Scheduling
        • Vertical Scheduling
        • Directing and Controlling
rules
Rules
  • Read selectively
  • Make lists
  • Everything in its place
  • Prioritize
  • Multitask the routine
  • Discretionary task jar
  • Divide up the big jobs
  • Critical 20%
  • Best time for important jobs
  • Arrange non-interrupted time
  • Don’t procrastinate
  • Keep track of time
  • Set deadlines
  • Use waiting time
  • Designate time for busy work
  • Closure on one thing a day
  • Schedule personal time
  • Limit worry time
  • Long term objectives
  • Continuous improvement
tips for managers
Tips for managers
  • Hold routine meetings at end of day
  • Set time limit
  • Hold meetings only if needed
  • Agendas, minutes
  • Start on time
  • Paper work decisions
  • Organize
  • Limit interruptions
slide26
Delegate
  • Empowerment: allow for initiative
  • Give credit to those who deserve it
types of stressors and what we can do about them27
Types of stressors and what we can do about them
  • Encounter Stressors:
    • Role Conflicts
    • Issue
    • Interaction
  • Elimination Strategies:
    • Delegation
    • Interpersonal skills
      • Conflict resolution
  • Resilience
    • Social support; Collaboration
      • Self awareness
      • EQ
types of stressors and what we can do about them28
Types of stressors and what we can do about them
  • Situational Stressors:
    • Unfavourable working conditions
    • Rapid change
  • Elimination Strategies:
    • Work redesign
    • Changing jobs
  • Short term Strategies
  • resiliency
work redesign
Work redesign
  • Level of task demand
  • Level of autonomy (individual control & discretion)
  • Level of interest
  • Feedback
types of stressors and what we can do about them30
Types of stressors and what we can do about them
  • Anticipatory Stressors:
    • Unpleasant expectations
    • Fear
  • Elimination Strategies:
    • Time management
      • Priorities; planning
  • Short term strategies
  • Resiliency
stress and self awareness
Stress and Self awareness
  • Values
  • Attitude towards change
  • Cognitive style
  • Interpersonal orientation