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Stress Management and Resiliency. Overview. Definition/Effects of Stress Elements of Stress Reactions to Stress Defense Mechanisms Coping Strategies Time Management Elements of Resiliency Exercise. Defining Stress. Mental, emotional, or physical tension, strain, or distress.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Definition/Effects of Stress
  • Elements of Stress
  • Reactions to Stress
  • Defense Mechanisms
  • Coping Strategies
  • Time Management
  • Elements of Resiliency
  • Exercise
defining stress
Defining Stress

Mental, emotional, or physical tension, strain, or distress.

An environment filled with reinforcing or opposing forces that either stimulate or inhibit performance.

  • Takes $500 billion from economy yearly
  • Adversely affects health of half the adult population
  • Costs $550 million in workdays lost each year
  • Leads to 40% of U.S. worker turnover
  • Is a factor in 60-80% job accidents
elements of stress
Elements of Stress
  • A balance or imbalance of:
    • Driving Forces (stressors)
    • Restraining Forces (resiliency)
elements of stress1
Elements of Stress

Current Level of Functioning

Restraining Force A

Driving Force A

Driving Force B

Restraining Force B

Restraining Force C

Driving Force C

Driving Force D

Restraining Force D

Modified from Lewin’s Force Field

elements of stress2
Elements of Stress
  • Driving Forces (Stressors)
    • Time: too much in too little time
    • Encounters: interpersonal issues
    • Situation: long hours/changes
    • Anticipatory: expected tense climate
elements of stress3
Elements of Stress
  • Restraining Forces (Resiliency)
    • Physiological: cardiovascular conditioning & dietary control
    • Psychological: control, commitment, challenge develops “hardiness”
    • Social: friendships, mentor relationships, task teams
reactions to stress
Reactions to Stress
  • General Reactions
    • Alarm
    • Resistance
    • Exhaustion
reactions to stress1
Reactions to Stress
  • Managerial Reactions
    • Narrow View (tunnel vision)
    • Intolerant & Demanding
    • Fixate on Single Approach
    • Adopt a Crisis Mentality
    • Oversimplify Issues
    • Consult Others Less Often
    • Rely on Old Habits
    • Less Creative Problem Solving
defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
  • Aggression - attack the stressor
  • Regression - childish
  • Repression - denial
  • Withdrawal - attention gap/escape
  • Fixation - pointless persistence
coping strategies
Coping Strategies
  • Enactive – creating non-stress environment
  • Proactive – increasing resiliency
  • Reactive – short-term

Managing Stress

Enactive Strategies

Proactive Strategies

Reactive Strategies


Eliminate stressors

Develop resiliency strategies

Learn temporary coping mechanisms




Long Term

Short Term






Long Time

Moderate Time


time management
Time Management
  • Long-term – Effective
  • Short-term – Efficient
  • Focus on effectiveness before efficiency
time management1
Time Management











time management2
Time Management
  • Efficient Techniques
    • Hold routine day-end meetings
    • Hold short stand-up meetings
    • Set meeting time deadlines
    • Cancel light-agenda meetings
    • Set agenda
    • Stick to it
    • Keep track of time
    • Start meetings on time
time management3
Time Management
  • Efficient Techniques
    • Prepare minutes, follow up on decisions
    • Insist followers suggest solutions
    • Meet visitors in office doorway
    • Visit subordinates’ office for brief meetings
    • Don’t over-schedule your day
    • Have someone else take calls, scan email
    • Have place to work uninterrupted
    • Do something definitive w/every piece of paper
time management4
Time Management
  • Efficient Techniques
    • Keep work area clean
    • Delegate work
    • Identify amount of effort
    • Give others credit for success
elements of resiliency
Elements of Resiliency

The ability to withstand, recover and/or grow in the face of stressors and changing demands.

Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health

elements of resiliency1
Elements of Resiliency

Total Human Wellness

  • Physical Fitness
  • Mental Fitness
  • Social Fitness
  • Spiritual Fitness
elements of resiliency2
Elements of Resiliency

Physical Fitness

  • Managing your levels of stress
  • Good nutrition/Eating well
  • Getting enough rest
  • Regular Exercise
elements of resiliency3
Elements of Resiliency

Mental Fitness

  • Take breaks and relax muscles
  • Maintain positive self-esteem
elements of resiliency4
Elements of Resiliency

Social Fitness

  • Talk to family, friends, physician, chaplain
  • Build and maintain social support
  • Get involved in community and group activities
  • Be a Wingman!
  • Maintain positive self-esteem
elements of resiliency5
Elements of Resiliency

Spiritual Fitness

  • Maintain a sense of purpose
  • Strengthen faith
elements of resiliency6
Elements of Resiliency

Effective Problem Solving

  • Accurately assess situations
  • Generate a list of viable options
  • Use this information to determine a best course of action
elements of resiliency7
Elements of Resiliency


  • Regulate nutritional balance
  • Take part in periodic recreation
  • Enjoy downtime
  • Get adequate rest
elements of resiliency8
Elements of Resiliency

Positive Orientation

Why might a positive orientation (outlook) be difficult for some?

elements of resiliency9
Elements of Resiliency

Positive Orientation

What type things can you do to maintain a positive outlook on life?

elements of resiliency10
Elements of Resiliency

Positive Orientation

Consider these actions:

  • Focus upon positives such as gratitude, blessings, delights, interest, and love
  • Cope with hard times through laughter, humor, and fun
  • Make time to play and have fun
  • Increase contacts and support from others
  • Practice letting go and coping with surprises type things can you do to maintain a positive outlook on life?
  • Step 1: Keep one-week time log
  • Step 2: Record required vs. discretionary time
  • Step 3: Rate activity productivity
  • Step 4: Create plan for discretionary time
  • Step 5: ID more productive use of discretionary time
  • Definition/Effects of Stress
  • Elements of Stress
  • Reactions to Stress
  • Defense Mechanisms
  • Coping Strategies
  • Time Management
  • Developing Resiliency
  • Exercise