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Warm Up: 1/15/2013. Happy Tuesday! Video tomorrow Get to listen to some music…classical music! Looking at the spread of the enlgihtenment In your warm-up write: Where was the center of the Enlightenment? Name two basic beliefs of the philosophes.

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warm up 1 15 2013
Warm Up: 1/15/2013
  • Happy Tuesday!
    • Video tomorrow
    • Get to listen to some music…classical music!
    • Looking at the spread of the enlgihtenment
  • In your warm-up write:
    • Where was the center of the Enlightenment?
    • Name two basic beliefs of the philosophes.
    • What were two accomplishments of women?
  • Identify how the Enlightenment spread
  • Analyze the new architecture of the 17th century
  • Listen to the classical music of the age
  • In the 1700s, Paris was the intellectual capital of Europe.
  • People flocked there to study, philosophize, and enjoy fine culture.
  • The brightest minds of this era gathered there.
  • From their circles spread the ideas of the Enlightenment.
the paris salons
The Paris Salons
  • Several wealthy women in Paris held regular social gatherings in their mansions.
  • These gatherings were called ‘salons’.
  • Philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and intellectuals met to discuss ideas and enjoy artistic performances.
marie therese geoffrin
Marie Therese Geoffrin
  • Madame Geoffrin was the most influential salon hostess.
  • Madame Geoffrin financed the first encyclopedia to be made.
  • Denis Diderot brought together all the most current and enlightened thinking.
    • Science
    • Technology
    • Art
    • government
  • It was published in 1751.
  • The modern day WIKIPEDIA!
ideas circulate
Ideas Circulate
  • The salons and the encyclopedias Diderot published helped spread the Enlightenment ideas to educated people all over Europe.
  • Intellectuals shared their ideas through books, letters, visits, and magazines.
  • “Never have new ideas had such rapid circulation at such long distance.”
ideas reach middle class
Ideas reach middle class
  • Newspapers, pamphlets, and political songs.
  • Enlightenment ideas of government and equality attracted the literate middle class.
  • They had money, but not any political power.
  • They bought a lot of books about Enlightenment ideas, which helped push the movement forward.
art and literature
Art and Literature
  • The Enlightenment is also known as the “Age of Reason”.
  • The ideals of order and reason were reflected in the arts.
    • Music
    • Literature
    • Painting
    • Architecture
  • Grand ornate style from the 1600s and early 1700s.
  • Monarchs built grand, elaborate palaces.
  • Under the influence of the Enlightenment, the style changed to Neoclassical.
neoclassical new classic
Neoclassical (New Classic)
  • Emphasis on order and balance.
  • Artists and architects worked in a simple, elegant style that borrowed ideas from classical Greece and Rome.
  • In music, this period is called classical.
classical music
Classical Music
  • Franz Joseph Haydn
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • Ludwig Van Beethoven




  • Developed new musical forms.
    • Sonata
    • Symphony
  • Gifted child who began composing music at age 5.
  • At age 12, he wrote his first opera.
  • His operas set a new standard of elegance and originality.
    • The Marriage of Figaro
    • Don Giovanni
    • The Magic Flute
  • Wrote piano music, string quartets, and stirring symphonies
  • Early works were in the same classical style as Mozart.
  • Later works carried his music into the Age of Romanticism.
  • Became deaf after publishing 32 sonatas
  • The Enlightenment also swept through palaces and royal courts.
  • Many philosophers, including Voltaire, believed that the best form of government was a monarchy in which the ruler respected the people’s rights.
enlightened despots1
Enlightened Despots
  • Some monarchs embraced the new ideas and made reforms that reflected Enlightenment beliefs.
  • They were called Enlightened Despots.
    • Despots means ‘Absolute Ruler’
enlightened despots2
Enlightened Despots
  • Supported the new ideas, but they had no intention of giving up any power.
  • They only had two desires.
    • Make their country stronger
    • Rule more effectively
  • The foremost of Europe's Enlightened despots
    • Frederick II of Prussia
    • Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria
    • Catherine the Great of Russia
frederick ii
Frederick II
  • King of Prussia 1740-1786
  • “I must enlighten my people, cultivate their manners and morals, and make them as happy as human beings can be, or as happy as the means at my disposal permits.”
  • He committed himself to making important reforms for Prussia.
frederick s reforms
Frederick’s Reforms
  • Religious freedoms
  • Reduced censorship
  • Improved education
  • Abolished torture
  • He did not end serfdom because he still needed support of the wealthy landowners.
  • Did not try to change the social order



joseph ii of austria
Joseph II of Austria
  • Ruled Austria from 1780-1790
    • Legal reforms
    • Freedom of the press
    • Freedom of worship
      • Protestants, Orthodox Christians, Jews
    • Abolished serfdom
    • Ordered peasants be paid for their labor with cash.
joseph ii
Joseph II
  • Nobles resisted the changes
  • After his death, all reforms were undone.
catherine the great
Catherine the Great
  • Ruled Russia from 1762-1796.
  • Formed a commission to make some reforms towards religions toleration and abolishment of torture, however, the commission never accomplished their goals.
  • Peasant uprising in 1773 convinced Catherine that she needed support of her nobles, so she granted them full power over serfs.
  • Serfs lost all freedom.