Chapter 3 Predetermined Overhead Rates, Flexible Budgets, and Absorption/Variable Costing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

oni
slide1 l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 3 Predetermined Overhead Rates, Flexible Budgets, and Absorption/Variable Costing PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 3 Predetermined Overhead Rates, Flexible Budgets, and Absorption/Variable Costing

play fullscreen
1 / 21
Download Presentation
Chapter 3 Predetermined Overhead Rates, Flexible Budgets, and Absorption/Variable Costing
189 Views
Download Presentation

Chapter 3 Predetermined Overhead Rates, Flexible Budgets, and Absorption/Variable Costing

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Cost Accounting Foundations and Evolutions Kinney, Prather, Raiborn Chapter 3 Predetermined Overhead Rates, Flexible Budgets, and Absorption/Variable Costing

  2. Learning Objectives (1 of 3) • Explain why and how overhead costs are allocated to products and services • Describe what causes underapplied or overapplied overhead and how is it treated at the end of the period

  3. Learning Objectives (2 of 3) • Explain how different capacity measures affect predetermined overhead rates • Describe two methods of analyzing mixed costs – high-low method and least squares regression analysis

  4. Learning Objectives (3 of 3) • Explain how managers use flexible budgets to set predetermined overhead rates • Contrast absorption and variable costing • Describe how changes in sales or production levels affect net income under absorption and variable costing

  5. Predetermined Overhead Rate • Allows overhead to be assigned during the period, fulfilling the matching principle • Adjusts for variations not related to activity • Compensates for fluctuations in activity level that do not affect fixed overhead • Allows managers to be aware of product, product line, customer, and vendor profitability

  6. The Activity Level(The Denominator) • Relationship between the overhead cost and the activity • production volume • direct labor hours • direct labor cost • machine hours • number of purchase orders or parts • machine setups • material handling time

  7. Disposing of Overhead Differences If overhead is underapplied Cost of Goods Sold increases Income decreases If overhead is overapplied Cost of Goods Sold decreases Income increases

  8. Alternative Capacity Levels(The Denominator Level) • Theoretical capacity • All production factors are operating perfectly • Disregards • Machinery breakdown • Holiday downtime • Results in • Significant underapplied overhead • Lowest product cost

  9. Alternative Capacity Levels(The Denominator Level) • Practical capacity • Theoretical capacity reduced by ongoing, regular operating interruptions (holidays, downtime, and start-up time) • Usually results in • Underapplied overhead • Low product cost

  10. Alternative Capacity Levels(The Denominator Level) Alternative Capacity Level • Normal capacity • Considers • Historical production level • Estimated future production level • Cyclical fluctuations • Attainable level of activity • When normal capacity is greater than expected capacity, may result in • Underapplied overhead • Higher product cost

  11. Alternative Capacity Levels(The Denominator Level) Alternative Capacity Level • Expected capacity • Anticipated activity level for the upcoming period based on projected product demand • Determined during the budget process • Should closely reflect actual costs • Results in • Immaterial overapplied or underapplied overhead • Highest product cost

  12. Analyzing Mixed Costs A mixed cost contains both a variable and fixed component variable Mixed Cost $ fixed Units

  13. Mixed Costs To determine variable and fixed predetermined overhead rates, separate mixed costs into variable and fixed components

  14. Separating Mixed Costs Use formula for a straight line y = a + bX y = total cost a = fixed portion of total cost b = variable cost X = activity base to which y is related

  15. Separating Mixed Costs • Two Methods • High-Low Method • Least Squares Regression Analysis

  16. Flexible Budgets Separate overhead costs into fixed and variable components in order to estimate the amount of overhead at various levels of the denominator activity

  17. Flexible Budget • Shows manufacturing overhead costs and cost behavior • Separates costs into fixed and variable elements • Provides budgeted costs at various activity levels • Shows impact of a change in the denominator level of activity

  18. Plantwide vs. DepartmentalPredetermined Overhead Rates • Plantwide Overhead Rate • Homogeneous activities throughout plant • Departmental Overhead Rate • Different types of work effort in departments • Diverse material requiring different times in departments • Usually provides better information for planning, control, and decision making

  19. Absorption costing Fixed manufacturing overhead is a product cost Variable costing Fixed manufacturing overhead is a period cost Variable operating expenses are subtracted from product contribution margin to equal contribution margin Differences

  20. Difference in Income Absorption Vs. Variable • No change in inventory level • Absorption Income = Variable Income • Increase in inventory level • Absorption Income > Variable Income • Phantom Profits • Decrease in inventory level • Absorption Income < Variable Income

  21. Questions • How does underapplied overhead affect cost of goods sold and net income? • What two methods are used to separate mixed costs into variable and fixed costs? • What is the difference between absorption and variable costing?