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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1The Land Section 2Climate and Vegetation Chapter Summary & Study Guide Chapter Assessment Contents Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

  3. Intro 1

  4. The Land Places to Locate • Mount McKinley  • Rio Grande  •  • Mississippi River  • St. Lawrence River  • Great Lakes Section 1-3 • Rocky Mountains  •  • Appalachian Mountains  • Colorado River  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  5. The lower 48 states of the United States contain a number of active volcanoes. Two of the best known are in Washington, on the Pacific coast: Mount Rainier and Mount Saint Helens. At 14,410 feet (4,392 m), Mount Rainier is the third-tallest volcano in North America. It has been dormant for over a century. Mount Saint Helens, at a height of 8,365 feet (2,550 m), violently erupted in 1980, killing 57 people and damaging an area of about 70 sq. mi. (180 sq km). Section 1-5

  6. Landforms • The Western Mountains and PlateausThe western mountains of North America are called the Pacific Ranges. Section 1-6 • They include Alaska’s Mount McKinley, the highest point on the continent. • The Rocky Mountains link the United States and Canada and stretch northwest from New Mexico to Alaska. (pages 115–116) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  7. Landforms (cont.) • Dry basins and plateaus, featuring Death Valley and the Grand Canyon, fill the area between the mountain ranges.  Section 1-7 • Interior Landforms East of the Rockies, the land falls and flattens into the Great Plains, which extend across the center of North America. (pages 115–116) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  8. Landforms (cont.) • Eastern Mountains and Lowlands North America’s oldest mountain chain, the Appalachians, extends from Quebec in Canada to Alabama in the United States.  Section 1-8 • TheCanadian Shield, a giant core of rock, makes up the eastern half of Canada and the northeastern United States. (pages 115–116) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  9. Landforms (cont.) • IslandsNorth American islands include Manhattan, home to a major world cultural and financial center, in the northeast. Section 1-9 • The Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific are volcanic mountaintops.  • Greenland, the world’s largest island,is just off the coast of Canada’s Ellesmere Island. (pages 115–116) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  10. A Fortune in Water • Rivers from the RockiesThe high ridge of the Rockies is called the ContinentalDivide. Section 1-11 • Water flows west of the Divide toward the Pacific Ocean and east of the Divide into the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. (pages 116–119) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  11. A Fortune in Water (cont.) • The Mighty Mississippi One of North America’s longest rivers, the Mississippi flows 2,350 miles (3,782 km) from its source.  Section 1-12 • It begins in Minnesota as a stream and ends as a broad river that empties into the Gulf of Mexico. • The Mississippi drains all or part of 31 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. It is one of the world’s busiest commercial waterways. (pages 116–119) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  12. A Fortune in Water (cont.) • Eastern RiversThe St. Lawrence, one of Canada’s most important rivers, forms part of the United States-Canada border. Section 1-13 • The Canadian cities of Quebec, Montreal, and Ottawa developed along the St. Lawrence River and its tributaries. (pages 116–119) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  13. A Fortune in Water (cont.) • Niagara Falls, located on a river connecting Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, is a major source of hydroelectric power for Canada and the United States. Section 1-14 (pages 116–119)

  14. A Fortune in Water (cont.) Section 1-15 (pages 116–119) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  15. A Fortune in Water (cont.) •  Section 1-16 • The Great Lakes–Lakes Superior, Erie, Michigan, Ontario, and Huron–are basins created by glacial activity. (pages 116–119) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  16. A Fortune in Water (cont.) What is the importance of the Mississippi River in U.S. history and economics? Explain. Section 1-17 The river stretches almost the full length of the country’s interior, so it provides a means for transporting people and goods. European explorers used the Mississippi to venture into new territories. (pages 116–119) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  17. Natural Resources (cont.) • Minerals Gold, silver, and copper are found in the Rocky Mountains. Nickel and iron are mined in parts of the Canadian Shield.  Section 1-19  • Canada supplies much of the world’s potash, copper, and silver. (pages 119–120) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  18. Natural Resources (cont.) Section 1-20 (pages 119–120) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  19. Natural Resources (cont.) • Timber Today forests cover less than 50 percent of Canada and just 30 percent of the United States. Section 1-21 • Commercial loggers face the challenge of harvesting trees while preserving the remaining forests. (pages 119–120) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  20. Natural Resources (cont.) • Fishing The coastal waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico are important sources of fish and other sea animals.  Section 1-22 • Because of overfishing, however, the Grand Banks, off Canada’s southeast coast, are now off limits to cod fishers. (pages 119–120) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  21. Natural Resources (cont.) Section 1-23 (pages 119–120) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  22. Tornadoes are a common phenomenon in the Great Plains region. “Tornado” comes from the Spanish word for thunderstorm. Tornadoes are usually brief, but they are very destructive. During the 1990s alone, 378 people lost their lives in tornadoes in the United States. Section 2-5

  23. Northern Climates • Large parts of Canada and Alaska lie in a subarctic climate zone with very cold winters and extensive coniferous forests. Section 2-8 • Winter temperatures can fall as low as -70ºF (–57ºC). (page 122) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  24. Northern Climates (cont.) • Bitter winters and cool summers in the tundra along the Arctic coastline make the area unsuitable for most plants or people.  Section 2-9 • Greenland boasts only a few ice-free areas with some extremely hardy trees. (page 122) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  25. Northern Climates (cont.) What everyday effects does climate have on people who live in subarctic and tundra climate zones? Section 2-10 They probably spend a lot of their time indoors. They must wear layers of warm clothing and heavy socks and boots. For travel, they need vehicles that function in icy conditions. They must take precautions against frostbite. They need to keep their kitchens stocked with supplies for the times when they are snowed in. Many fresh fruits and vegetables are expensive or unavailable. Occupational opportunities are limited. (page 122) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  26. Western Climates • Marine West CoastA marine west coast climate brings nearly 100 inches (254 cm) of rainfall every year to the Pacific coast from California to southern Alaska. Section 2-11 • This amount of precipitation, combined with cool temperatures, is ideal for coniferous forests, ferns, and mosses. (pages 122–124) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  27. Western Climates(cont.) • Plateaus, Basins, and Deserts • The region between the Pacific Ranges and the Rocky Mountains includes deserts and steppes. • The weather is hot and dry. Cacti and wildflowers bloom during the brief spring rains.  • Elevation gives the higher reaches of the Rocky Mountains and Pacific Ranges a highlands climate. Section 2-12 (pages 122–124) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  28. Western Climates(cont.) • Beyond the treeline, coniferous forests give way to only lichens and mosses. • In the spring, the warm, dry chinook wind thaws the snows at the base of the eastern slopes of the Rockies. Section 2-13 (pages 122–124) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  29. Western Climates(cont.) Why are trees unable to grow on high mountaintops? Section 2-14 At high altitudes, the temperatures are too cold for trees to grow. Soils are generally shallow, rocky, and frozen, so seeds do not germinate. (pages 122–124) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  30. Interior Climates • PrairiesPrairies, or naturally treeless expanses of grasses, spread across North America’s midsection.  Section 2-15 • Some prairie grasses grow up to 12 feet high (3.7 m) as a result of rainfall ranging from 10 to 30 inches (26 to 76 cm) every year. (pages 124–125) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  31. Interior Climates(cont.) • The Dust Bowl When farmers settled the Great Plains, they plowed up the sod formed by prairie grasses, leaving the soil without protection.  Section 2-16 • During the 1930s, several seasons of drought and dry winds blew the soil away, and the area was nicknamed the Dust Bowl. (pages 124–125) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  32. Interior Climates(cont.) Section 2-17 (pages 122–124) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  33. Interior Climates(cont.) What steps have farmers today taken to prevent future dust-bowl disasters? Section 2-18 Farmers have planted shelter belts of trees to moderate wind damage, rotated crops, allowed some areas to remain in grass, adopted no-till farming practices, contour plowed to conserve moisture, and planted cover crops. Many participate in government-sponsored conservation programs. (pages 124–125) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  34. Eastern Climates • The southeastern United States, with a humid subtropical climate, has mild winters and long, muggy summers. Section 2-19 • Much of the original deciduous forest has been cleared for agriculture.  • Wetlands and swamps shelter a great variety of plants and animals. • Every summer, the region prepares for hurricanes. (page 125) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  35. Eastern Climates (cont.) • The northeastern United States and southeastern Canada have a humid continental climate with bands of deciduous and mixed forestland.  Section 2-20 • Much of this area is prone to winter blizzards–snowstorms with high winds, heavy or blowing snow, and little visibility. (page 125) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  36. Eastern Climates (cont.) Section 2-21 (page 125) Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

  37. Eastern Climates (cont.) In which region would you prefer to live? Why? Section 2-22 Possible answers: The Northeast, because the climate changes during each of the four seasons, or the South, because the winters are mild. (page 125) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  38. Tropical Climates • Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the southern tip of Florida have tropical climates.  Section 2-23 • Southern Florida has a tropical savanna area, and both Hawaii and Puerto Rico have tropical rain forests. (page 125) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  39. Tropical Climates (cont.) Why is southern Florida the only place in the continental United States to have a tropical climate, and what kind of tropical climate exists there? Section 2-24 Florida’s southern tip lies in the low latitudes. The rest of the continental United States is too far north to have tropical climates. Florida’s tropical savanna climate zone has seasonal rains, vast grasslands, and high temperatures year-round. (page 125) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  40. Critical Thinking Comparing and Contrasting How do hurricanes and tornadoes differ? Section 2-29 Hurricanes are ocean storms hundreds of miles wide with winds of 74 mph (119 k/h) or more that occur in late summer and early autumn. Tornadoes–twisting funnels of air with winds of up to 300 mph (483 k/h)–result from violent spring and summer thunderstorms called supercells. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  41. Analyzing Maps Region Study the map on page 122. Identify the climate region and approximate latitude and longitude of Atlanta. Section 2-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  42. Reviewing Facts Section 1: The Land What effect does the Continental Divide have on the direction rivers flow? Chapter Assessment 5 Waters west of the Continental Divide flow into the Pacific Ocean. Waters east of the divide flow into the Mississippi River system and then into the Gulf of Mexico. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

  43. Maps and Charts 1

  44. Maps and Charts 2