Advanced Theories of Physical Conditioning Physical Activity, Health, and Hypokinetic Disease
Overview • Physical activity levels have dropped over the last 25 years.
Overview • Automation and other technologies have contributed greatly to lessening physical activity at work and home.
Overview • Sixty percentof all Americans still do not get the recommended amount of physical activity needed for health benefits. • In fact, 25 percent of all adults are not active at all.
Overview • Inactivity increases with age and is more common among women than men and among those with lower income and less education than among those with higher income or education.
Overview • Nearly half of young people aged 12-21 are not vigorously active on a regular basis. • Physical activity declines dramatically with age during adolescence.
Overview • Female adolescents are much less physically active than male adolescents.
Overview • Fewer than one in four children get 20 minutes of vigorous activity every day of the week.
Overview • Less than one in four reported getting at least half an hour of any type of physical activity every single day.
Overview • Physical activity peaks in 10th grade, at 11 hours per week as the median, and then begins a steady decline that is likely to continue into the adult years.
Overview • In all grade levels, girls get significantly less activity than boys, yet three-quarters of the girls surveyed felt they get enough exercise.
Overview • About one in four children do not get any physical education in school.
Overview • Only 19 percent of all high school students are physically active for 20 minutes or more in physical education classes every day during the school week.
Outcomes • Lack of regular physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle have led to a rise in hypokineticdiseases in the United States.
Outcomes • The major hypokinetic diseases are cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and musculoskeletal disorders.
Overview • Inactivity and poor diet cause at least 300,000 deaths a year in the U.S. • Only tobacco causes more preventable deaths.
Outcomes • Heart disease • Diabetes • Colon cancer • High blood pressure.
Outcomes • Can be prevented or improved through regular physical activity.
Cardiovascular Disease • Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for 42% of all deaths in the U.S.
Cardiovascular Disease • 13.5 million people have coronary heart disease. • 1.5 million people suffer from a heart attack in a given year. • 50 million people have high blood pressure.
Cardiovascular Disease • 4.7 million people have congestive heart failure. • 3.8 million have strokes.
CHD Risk Factors • The positive risk factors for coronary heart disease are the following: • age, family history, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, and physical inactivity.
Hypertension • Hypertension is a chronic, persistent elevation of blood pressure, affecting an estimated one out of every four adults in the U.S.
Hypercholesterolemia • An elevation in blood cholesterol, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). • It is associated with increased risk of developing CVD.
Hypercholesterolemia • HDL-C values exceeding 45 mg per dl are desirable, and women tend to have higher HDL-C compared to men.
Diabetes Mellitus • 9 million people have adult-onset (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. • Regular physical activity reduces risk of developing NIDDM through its association with weight loss and the effects of exercise on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.
Cancer • 95,000 people are newly diagnosed with colon cancer each year. • Regular physical activity helps to protect against the development of colon cancer.
Obesity and Overfatness • The prevalence of obesity in the U.S. is on the rise; one out of every three adults (60 million people) and more than one out of every five children are overfat.
Obesity and Overfatness • 12-14 percent of children, ages 6-17, are overfat • Obesity-related diseases cost the U.S. economy more than $100 billion every year.
Obesity and Overfatness • Obesity is more than just an aesthetic problem. • Excess body fatness poses a threat to both the quality and length of one’s life.
Musculoskeletal Diseases and Disorders • Osteoporosis (25 million) and low back syndrome are musculoskeletal disorders afflicting millions of people in the U.S. each year.
Musculoskeletal Diseases and Disorders • 250,000 people suffer from a hip fracture each year.
Benefits of Physical Activity. • 1. Physiological Benefits.a. Improved physical fitness. 1) Improves strength and endurance. 2) Helps build healthy bones and muscles.
Benefits of Physical Activity. 3) Improves body composition (both fat and muscle). 4) Improves blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
Benefits of Physical Activity. b. Helps to develop the neuromuscular system. c. Skill development. d. Improves cardiac function as indicated by an increased stroke volume, cardiac output, blood volume, and total hemoglobin.
Medical Benefits. • a. Reduces the risk of developing or dying from some of the leading causes of illness and death in the U.S. • b. Reduces the risk of dying prematurely.
Medical Benefits. • c. Acts as deterrent to CHD due to its effects on blood lipids, blood volume, and total hemoglobin. • d. Reduces the risk of developing diabetes. • e. Reduces the risk for developing high blood pressure by modifying insulin resistance and obesity.
Medical Benefits. • f. Helps reduce blood pressure in people who already have high blood pressure. • g. Is associated with a reduction in atherosclerotic diseases.
Medical Benefits. • i. Reduces the risk of developing colon cancer. • h. Treatment and rehabilitation.
Medical Benefits. • j. Helps older adults become stronger and better able to move about without falling.
Psychological Benefits. • a. Improves cognitive function.1) Promotes changes in brain structure and function in infants and young children.
Psychological Benefits. • 2) Sensory stimulation through physical activity is essential for the optimal growth and development of the young nervous system.
Psychological Benefits. • 3) Promotes early cognitive function through imitation, symbolic play, development of language, and the use of symbols. • 4) Assists in the development and refinement of perceptual abilities involving vision, balance, and tactile sensations.
Psychological Benefits. • 5) Aids the development of cognition through opportunities to develop learning strategies, decision making, acquiring, retrieving, and integrating information and solving problems.
Psychological Benefits. • b. Reduces anxiety and stress and increases self-esteem. • c. Reduces feelings of depression.
Psychological Benefits. • d. It’s fun. • e. Improves self image.
Sociological Benefits. • a. Improves self-discipline. • b. Can be a social experience.
Physical Activity and CAD • Individuals who exercise regularly reduce their relative risk of developing CAD by a factor of 1.5 to 2.4. • (American Heart Association 1995)
Physical Activity and CAD • Physical activity exerts its effect independently of smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, diabetes, or family history of CAD.
Physical Activity and CAD • People who engage in regular exercise as part of their rehabilitation following a myocardial infarction have improved survival rates compared to individuals who do not exercise during their rehabilitation.