THE GREAT WAR “THE WAR TO END ALL WARS”
Bellwork #1 – ½ pg response • Should you always support a friend no matter what he or she does? What is the risk of not supporting a friend? • Read over the activity instruction sheet. • Prepare for the press conference by generating a list of questions you would need to ask to write a descriptive sensational newspaper article. You should be able to generate a list of at least 5.
New nations created Some nations became powerful Other became weak Many civilians killed This War Shocked the World • Destruction • Involved more nations • Advanced weapons • More deaths • Empires fell
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Study the map of Austria-Hungary’s ethnic groups. What problems might arise with all these groups being joined into one empire? Balkan Crisis
Heir to the throne of Austria -Hungary Empire Nephew of current leader Wife – Sophia Going to visit Sarajevo Arrive by train 10 am. Speech at City Hall Observe Military Drills Lunch with Mayor Archduke Franz Ferdinand & Family
Sarajevo, Bosnia June 28, 1914 – It was a sunny, warm day Lead Investigator Vlaw Andordervic
Street Corner in Sarajevo where the Archduke was Assassinated
7 Terrorist of the Black Hand • Mehmed Mehmedbasic – 27 yrs - escaped • Vaso Cubrilovic – 17 yrs - captured • Nedjelko Cabrinovi – 20 yrs - captured • Cvijetko Popovic – 18 yrs - captured • Danilo Ilic – 24 yrs - captured • Trifka Grabez – 19 yrs - captured • Gavrilo Princip - 19 yrs – captured
Trial of Gavrilo Principe • Princip underage only sentenced to 20 yrs in prison
Temper of WarISN Work • Go to the next clean section of your ISN and create the Unit 7-5 Title Page • On the next right hand section cut and glue the guided notes sheet for WWI • On the left hand side answer the question at the bottom of the Temper of War reading. • After reading the article try to identify the M.A.I.N. of WWI. Identify each letter, what it means, and how it lead to war.
Roots of War • M – Militarism = power of military (Arms Race • A– Alliances = agreements among nations to help each other • I – Imperialism = race for empires and increased competition • N – Nationalism = extreme pride in your country – want to be most powerful
Bellwork • Judging by the photo what do you think life in the trenches was like? What might have been some of the hardships of fighting out of trenches. Why would they be beneficial?
Bellwork • As the leader of Austria-Hungary you have a major decision to make. The heir to your throne has been assassinated by a Serbian terrorist group. What do you do next? Do you blame the Serbian government and declare war? Do you try to find more members of the black hand? Or since you caught the assassin do you drop it and move on. Think about how this decision could affect all of Europe.
Roots of War • M – Dangerous to let other country surpass u – protect yourself – everybody was doing it • A– My friends & I are stronger than u & ur friends – bring countries into conflict that aren't involved • I – Continued expansion leads to competition, rivalry then conflict • N – mixed cultures leads to conflict – want to break away from empires and form their own country (Black Hand trying to unite Slavic ppl)
Immediate Cause of WWI • Balkan Crisis – Ethnic Slavs want their own country • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand • Starts a chain reaction of events
How did the Alliance system lead to war? Triple Entente Triple Alliance Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Russia mobilises its army & declares war on Austria-Hungary Germany helps its ally, Austria-Hungary & declares war on Russia France & Britain help their allies and declare war on Germany & Austria-Hungary …. Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Britain Russia France & Serbia
Bellwork #2 – Put these events in the order they happened • France enters war on side of Russia • Serbia refuses ultimatum • Russia Mobilizes to protect Serbia • Austria-Hungary blames Serbia for Archdukes death – send ultimatum • Austria Declares on Serbia • Germany declares war on Russia • Britain pledges to help neutral Belgium and enter war on France’s side • Germany invades neutral Belgium
A-H blames Serbia for assassination • Serbia refuses ultimatum • AH declares war on Serbia • Russia mobilizes to protect Serbia • Germany declares war on Russia • France enters war on Russia side • Germany invades neutral Belgium • Britain pledges to help neutral Belgium enters war on France’s side
Chain Reaction of Events • A/H blames Serbia • Send ultimatum • Russia begins to mobilize • Germany declares war on Russia • France declares war on Germany • Britain declares war on Germany
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers: Ottoman Empire replaces Italy Italy changed sides
Hands On WWI Map QuestionsCopy & Answer on the left side of ISN • What was the Schlieffen Plan? • What role did the taxi’s play in the Battle of Marne? • Summarize the following battles. • Why was the British blockade bad for Germany? How did they get around it? • How did the European colonies around the world help the war effort? • What happened to Russia in 1917? • How did America contribute to the allies during the beginning of World War I?
If you're Germany, where do you attack?
Schlieffen Plan • Alfred von Schliefeen
Germany - Schlieffen Plan • Did not want a 2 front war – Russia & France • Attack France by going thru. Neutral Belgium. • A quick victory and then fight Russia (before they could mobilize) • Belgium had a secret treaty w/ Britain – made it hard on Germany • Britain mobilized more quickly than Germany thought they could
“Belgium is a country, not a road” • King Albert I of Belgium denied permission • August 2, 1914 Germany declared war on France • August 4, 1914 Great Britain declared war on Germany for violating Belgian neutrality
Illusion - Over by Christmas • Most people thought the war would be over by Christmas • Schleiffen Plan worked well – Germany was 25 miles from Paris by Sept 3, 1914 • France got intelligence that led them to attack at the Marne River • Russia then attacked and Germany had to splits its forces • The stalemate began -
Battle of MarneSept 6-12 1914 • Fr & Br been retreating for 12 straight days • Launched a counteroffensive • Attacked German’s right flank spliting the forces • Germany still pushed to France Marne River
Aided by the Taxi Cabs • 600 Taxis brought soldiers from Paris to the front • 6,000 soldiers • Halted the German advance • Germany began to retreat
Funk Holes Life in the Trenches
No Man’s Land • British poet Wilfred Owens, later killed in action during the war, wrote in a couple of letters: • "No Man's Land is pocket marked like the body of foulest disease and its odor is the breath of cancer...No Man's Land under snow is like the face of the moon, chaotic, crater-ridden, uninhabitable, awful, the abode of madness." • "Hideous landscapes, vile noises....everything unnatural, broken, blastered; the distortion of the dead, whose unburiable bodies sit outside the dug-outs all day, all night, the most execrable sights on earth.“ • What do these quotes tell you about life in the trenches? How would this affected you, if you were a soldier?
Typical Soldier’s Trench Life • 15% front line • 10% support line • 30% reserve line • 20% rest • 25% other (hospital, travelling, leave, training courses, etc.)
Virtual Tour • Life in the Trenches • Dug Out Virtual Tour • Trench Warfare Game Interactive Trenches