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Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language. Deny A. Kwary http://www.kwary.net Airlangga University. Grammatical vs. Ungrammatical. Well-formed or grammatical sentence: a sequence of words that conform to the rules of syntax.

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syntax the sentence patterns of language

Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language

Deny A. Kwary

http://www.kwary.net

Airlangga University

grammatical vs ungrammatical
Grammatical vs. Ungrammatical
  • Well-formed or grammatical sentence: a sequence of words that conform to the rules of syntax.
  • Ill-formed or ungrammatical sentence: a sequence of words that violate the rules of syntax
grammatical or ungrammatical
Grammatical or Ungrammatical:

1. The boy found the ball

2. The boy found quickly

3. The boy found in the house

4. The boy found the ball in the house

5. Disa slept the baby

6. Disa slept soundly

Find: Transitive verb (with object)

Sleep: Intransitive verb (no object)

pp. 119 - 120

syntactic categories 1
Lexical categories

Noun (N)

Verb (V)

Adjective (A)

Preposition (P)

Adverb (Adv)

Examples

moisture, policy

melt, remain

good, intelligent

to, near

slowly, now

Syntactic Categories (1)
slide5

Syntactic Categories (2)

Non-lexical categories

  • Determiner (Det)
  • Degree word (Deg)
  • Qualifier (Qual)
  • Auxiliary (Aux)
  • Conjunction (Conj)
  • Complementizer (Comp)

Examples

  • the, this
  • very, more
  • always, perhaps
  • will, can
  • and, or
  • that (clause)
indicate the category of each word in the following sentences
Indicate the category of each word in the following sentences.

a. The glass suddenly broke.

b. A jogger ran towards the end of the lane.

c. The peaches never appear quite ripe.

d. Gillian will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra.

Det / N / Adv / V

Det / N / V / P / Det / N / P / Det / N

Det / N / Qual / V / Deg / A

N / Aux / V / Det / N / Conj / Det / N / P / Det / N

phrases
Phrases
  • NP : Noun Phrase

The car, a clever student

  • VP : Verb Phrase

study hard, play the guitar

  • PP : Prepositional Phrase

in the class, above the earth

  • AP : Adjective Phrase

very tall, quite certain

phrase structure rules
Phrase Structure Rules
  • NP  (Det) N (PP)
  • PP  P NP

The bus in the yard

NP

The bus (NP)

Det

N

Det

N

PP

The

bus

P

NP

Det

N

The

bus

in

the

yard

phrase structure rules9
Phrase Structure Rules
  • VP  V (NP) (PP)
  • S  NP (Aux) VP

took the money from the bank

VP

took the money (VP)

V

NP

V

NP

PP

Det

N

Det

N

P

NP

took

the

money

Det

N

took

the

money

from

the

bank

draw the tree diagram
Draw the tree diagram.

1. repaired the telephone

2. the success of the program

3. a film about pollution

4. move towards the window

5. cast a spell on the broomstick

slide11

The main structure rules

1. S  NP (Aux) VP

2. NP  (Det) (AP) N (PP)

3. VP  V (NP) (PP) (Adv) (CP)

4. PP  P NP

5. AP  Adj (PP)

6. CP  Comp S

example 1
Example (1)

S

The old tree swayed in the wind

Aux

NP

VP

Det

Adj

N

V

PP

P

NP

Det

N

The

old

tree

past

swayed

in

the

wind

slide13

Example (2)

The children put the toy in the box

S

NP

VP

Det

N

V

NP

PP

Det

N

P

NP

Det

N

The

children

put

the

toy

in

the

box