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Trajectory Based Operations 2011 Seattle Flight Trials. October 10 th , 2012. Chris Wynnyk Mitch Wynnyk. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited Case Number: 12-4272 Date: 10/8/2012

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trajectory based operations 2011 seattle flight trials

Trajectory Based Operations2011 Seattle Flight Trials

October 10th, 2012

Chris Wynnyk

Mitch Wynnyk

slide2

Approved for public release: distribution unlimited

Case Number: 12-4272 Date: 10/8/2012

The contents of this material reflect the views of the author and/or the Director of the Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. Neither the Federal Aviation Administration nor the Department of Transportation makes any warranty or guarantee, or promise, expressed or implied, concerning the content or accuracy of the views expressed herein.

outline
Outline

Background

Air/Ground Trajectory

Analysis & Results

Discussion

4d trajectory based operations tbo
4D Trajectory Based Operations (TBO)

Concept

Apply RTA and FMS downlink data to time-based metering concepts

Research

Operational data analysis (TMA, FMS downlinks)

Large scale parametric studies (Spacing / RTA factors)

Human in the Loop Simulations (HITL)

Seattle Flight Trials (2010, 2011)

Objectives

Evaluate viability for Mid-term implementation (2015 - 2018)

Inform on standards development

2011 seattle flight trials
2011 Seattle Flight Trials

Overview

Large-scale use of RTA for meeting meter fix times into Seattle-

Tacoma International Airport (KSEA)

Nov 30th, 2011 – Dec 22nd, 2011

833 Flights assigned an RTA

3 metering fixes (OLM, RADDY, JAKSN), North and South flow

Automated data transfer and data collection

Objectives

Increase RTA acceptance + success rate

Assess viability of RTA as a near-term leave behind operation

Automate information exchange

Increase exposure to RTA concepts/procedures

Assess FMS downlink data use for ATC

slide7

1. RTA Planning/Calculation:

  • TMA ground system calculates STA
  • Aircraft downlinks detailed flight plan
  • Winds and performance limits uplinked

PLANNING HORIZON

(Typically > 200 nm)

FREEZE HORIZON

  • 2. RTA Assignment:
  • Sector A/B controller assigns the STA as an RTA to the aircraft at the merge fix
  • The pilot accepts RTA clearance verbally
  • Crew enter the RTA into the FMS and the aircraft adjusts the speed schedule to meet the RTA.

(Typically 150 - 200 nm)

Sector A

  • 3. RTA Monitoring:
  • ATC Monitors the aircraft to assure that it will meet the RTA using:
    • Host/ERAM Controller tools
    • TMA information
  • Takes action if aircraft does not appear to be able to meet the RTA

Sector B

1

TRACON

Sector C

TOD Region

2

METER FIX

3

Arrival Runway

2011 seattle flight trials1
2011 Seattle Flight Trials

27 (3%) Assigned, Unable Immediately

Assigned, Accepted, Achieved

514 (62%)

79 (9%) Assigned, Accepted, Unachievable

132 (16%) Assigned, Accepted, Cancelled

81 (10%) Assigned, Accepted, Achieved Outside Tolerance

Total: 833 Flights

crossing times
Crossing Times

μ = 8.99 sec

Accuracy

Out of the 595 total aircraft that completed RTAs:

86.4% met +/- 20 sec tolerance

96.6% met +/-30 sec tolerance

σ = 11.36 sec

2011 seattle flight trials2
2011 Seattle Flight Trials

Conclusions

Meet time accuracy is very good for aircraft that fully execute the RTA

Many factors beyond accuracy affect the operational viability

Ops concept requires additional automation and ground support tools

Next Steps

Further develop and mature the operating concept

Inform on standards development:

RTCA SC-227: Updates to the MASPS / MOPS – RTA requirements

RTCA SC-214: Data Communications – RTA and trajectory-related

message sets

2011 flight trials information exchange
2011 Flight Trials: Information Exchange

Objectives

Share information between air and ground systems:

Synchronize air-ground trajectory models

Enable more successful RTA assignments

Enable more successful RTA completions

Provide RTA monitoring support tool: “Intent Display”

Extensive data collection for post-trials analysis

Strategy

Provide aircraft with up-to-date wind forecasts and performance limits, downlink trajectory and RTA information, and display for TMU

information exchange
Information Exchange

FMS initiates exchange at 70 min from KSEA.

Aircraft downlinks detailed trajectory:

Winds

Course

Fuel remaining

Waypoint Name

Lat / Long, ETA

KIAS, Mach, TAS

1

4

6

3

2

1

5

7

information exchange1
Information Exchange
  • ASA AOC uplinks to aircraft:
  • Customized performance limits (max/min speed, altitude)
  • Cruise and descent winds based on FMS planned trajectory
  • Temporary RTA assignment

2

4

6

3

2

1

5

7

information exchange2
Information Exchange

Aircraft FMS downlinks RTA Window

(earliest and latest possible arrival times)

at the meter fix, given the wind forecast, performance limits, and airspace constraints

3

4

6

3

2

1

5

7

information exchange3
Information Exchange
  • FMS downlinks are processed in real-time at MITRE and information is shared with TMU on a web-based display, including:
    • Estimated Times of Arrival (ETAs)
    • RTAs
    • Wind and Aircraft Performance Limit confirmation

4

4

6

3

2

1

5

7

information exchange4
Information Exchange

TMA

Intent Display at TMU

TMC verifies that the

STA is within RTA window, communicates time to area supervisor, then Controller issues this time to the pilot via voice as an RTA.

Source: NASA

5

4

6

3

2

1

5

7

information exchange5
Information Exchange

Flight crew enters the RTA.

Source: GE Aviation

6

4

6

3

2

1

5

7

information exchange6
Information Exchange
  • Controller monitors aircraft
  • RTA entered in 4th line data block
  • Each Trial segment lasts 25-70 minutes

7

4

6

3

2

1

5

7

information exchange7
Information Exchange

Limitations

Info not sent directly to TMA system (aircraft weight, fuel, realtime winds, etc)

Aircraft trajectory downlinks dependent on FMS workload

RTA window not available for downlink unless RTA is being executed

Manual coordination process:

  • TMC visually compares to see if STA is within the RTA window

Adaptations

Configuration changes needed for flight trials:

  • Updates to FMS firmware (triggers to send custom messages)
  • Ground software (wind service, intent display, message routing)

Technical workarounds:

  • Temporary RTA entered to get RTA window
  • Performance limits adjusted to meet speed/altitude constraints
  • Communication of RTAs from TMC to controllers was manual
analysis
Analysis

Data (833 flights)

RTA Outcome (AAA, AAT, AAC, AAU, AUI,)

FMS ETA for meter fix

FMS RTA window

TMA ETA for meter fix

ATA – Actual Time of Arrival

Topics

What factors influence RTA window size?

How do TMA ETA’s compare to FMS ETA’s?

Do wind uplinks improve the air-ground trajectory synchronization?

Are TMA ETA’s accurate enough for RTA assignment?

rta window
RTA Window
  • The soonest and latest the aircraft could cross the meter fix
  • Estimated by many RTA-equipped Flight Management Systems
influences on rta window size1
Influences on RTA Window Size
  • Cruise Flight Level
  • Aircraft Series
eta predictions at planning horizon
ETA Predictions at Planning Horizon

Direct comparison of ETA predictions at Planning Horizon (45-50 minutes from Meter Fix)

Wind update for FMS greatly improves synchronization of FMS and TMA ETAs

capture of tma eta in rta window
Capture of TMA ETA in RTA Window

TMA ETA falls within the RTA window 79% of the time overall

outcome vs placement in rta window1
Outcome vs. Placement in RTA Window

* % AAA does not include AAC

using tma eta to assign rta
Using TMA ETA to Assign RTA

Subset of flights: RTA time was assigned using only TMA ETA for reference, no FMS information

Most fell within the next-available window

using tma eta to assign rta1
Using TMA ETA to Assign RTA

Subset of flights: RTA time was assigned using only TMA ETA for reference, no FMS information

Most fell within the next-available window

* % AAA does not include AAC

conclusions
Conclusions

Findings

RTA window size is strongly dependent on aircraft type and cruise altitude

Wind uplinks significantly improve air-ground trajectory synchronization

TMA ETA falls within the RTA window 79% of the time

Controllers uncomfortable not knowing RTA speed profiles

Discussion

Downlink may need to include RTA windows, speed profiles, coordinate on

wind information

Additional standards for winds handling(blending, representation)

wind service

`

Wind Service

3

NFDC Database

1

2

Wind

Service

Aircraft

FMS

ACARS

Service

7

5

4

6

ASA AOC

RUC Wind

slide35

`

FMS Winds

A

B

C

Top of Descent

FL 300

ALTITUDE

FL 250

FL 200

RTA ENABLED

FLIGHT PLAN WINDS

CRUISE WIND WPT A

Linear Interpolation

by Along Track Distance

CRUISE WIND WPT B

CRUISE WIND WPT C

DESCENT WIND FL 300

Linear Interpolation

by Altitude

SENT TO

AIRCRAFT

DESCENT WIND FL 250

DESCENT WIND FL 200

(ZERO WIND AT SURFACE)

delay absorption
Delay Absorption

Required Delay = Final RTA Time – TMA ETA at Decision Time

delay absorption1
Delay Absorption

Required Delay = Final RTA Time – TMA ETA at Decision Time

* % AAA does not include AAC