顧客需求 設計方法 朝陽科技大學工業設計系 林登立助理教授 November 17,2004
preparing the design specification • The stage we are at in the design process - preparing the design specification - establishes specific targets for the new product. • Factors which are included in the design specification will, hopefully, be delivered to the customer, whereas those which are omitted or overlooked probably will not. • It is, therefore, vitally important to get the design specification right in order to make sure that the new product is right. • But, what does it mean to say that the product is right? • We have seen what it means to get the product right for the company.
market orientation • But we have also seen in Chapter 2 that getting the product right for the company only increases the product's chances of commercial success by a factor of 2.5. • Getting the product's market orientation right increases its chances of commercial success by a factor of 5. • Market orientation has been considered so far in terms of competing product analysis and preliminary market research to identify the best product opportunity. • Now we must focus more closely on market orientation to determine the specific qualities of the product we need to deliver.
到底為何有些產品和服務具有刺激顧客的特徵？到底為何有些產品和服務具有刺激顧客的特徵？ • 而亦有那麼多連基本需求都達不到？ • 是什麼東西把取悅的特質與厭惡的特質區別開來？ • 設計師如何可能而以可靠及顧客導向的方式，預測出能將組成置放在競爭者之前面的產品或服務的特質？ • 組織的有限資源應當集中在何處？以能最大化其影響，QFD與創造力一齊運作起來以回答某些如此之問題， • 我們所謂的創造力，亦即對於顧客之需求與顧客所欲望的利益的創新性和突破性的答案。
Product quality • Product quality means many different things to different people. • An engineer thinks of quality in terms of fitness for purpose and builds quality into a product by ensuring that the conditions under which that product fails exceed its specified range of operating conditions. • A production manager thinks of quality in terms of how easily the product can be manufactured to specification and measures quality by the proportion of products meeting quality standards through routine procedures. • A service engineer thinks of quality in terms of the length of the product's maintenance free operating life and the cost or difficulty of maintaining the product when it does break down. • These are all vital ingredients of a successful product and, as we shall see, have to be considered when specifying the quality standards which the new product must meet.
Simple model of quality • The starting point for considering product quality, however, must be more general than this. • The most important determinant of quality for a new product is the customer's perception of its quality. • The simplest way to think of this is shown in graph A of Figure 8.1. • The more a product achieves its intended qualities, the more we would expect customers to be satisfied.
Refined model of quality • Unfortunately, customer satisfaction is not as simple as that. • Failure to achieve certain qualities in a new product (such as the products primary function) will not just lead to low levels of satisfaction, as graph A predicts. • It is likely that customers will have noticeable feelings of dissatisfaction. • This is represented in graph B, where the origin represents no quality 'problems' in the product giving rise to neutral feelings of satisfaction in customers.
效用品質（PQ） • 三個品質樣態的第一種是效用品質（PQ），表徵由自顧客所說出或口語化的願望，這些願望可以經由譬如電話調查和回函調查的常態市場研究活動而獲得，譬如，對汽車進行調查，顧客可能會要求一輛快速的車子或者一輛經濟型的車子，一個長途旅形時很舒適的車輛或者能夠運載大家庭成員和他們之所有的行李的車輛。 • 或者，如果進行關於旅社的調查，同樣的顧客可能指示說他喜歡不用排隊等待而能快速的退房，而且希望能夠從其房間，使用他所喜好的電話信用卡，來打電話而且而且不會被額外的算帳。 • 要是一個組織沒認知、瞭解或傳達這些PQ特質，顧客將會非常的不滿意或厭惡；而要是組織確實傳達這些特質，顧客將會非常滿意並高興。
“basic” aspects of quality • Even this does not give a detailed enough picture of product quality because not all customer expectations carry the same weight. • Customers have certain basic expectations of a product, many of which they may not even be aware of. • Failure to achieve these basic qualities will give rise to great dissatisfaction but, because they are unspoken, achieving them does not give rise to any positive feelings of satisfaction. • When buying a new car, for example, customers have the basic, unspoken expectation that the car will have wheels. • Finding that the car does not have wheels will cause great dissatisfaction but no satisfaction will be achieved by the presence of wheels. • These basic expectations of quality are expressed in graph C.
基本品質 • 顧客需求的第二類型被稱為「基本品質」，意指顧客通常不會談論及或想去要求的要求（「我想要一個駕駛起來安全）或「你旅舍的廁所有沒有衛生紙」）。 • 這是因為由過去的經驗，他們假設那些需求將會達到，基本品質需求就是大家皆期待會出現的事物，因此，顧客將不會表達出需求。 • 因此道理，它們常被指為「未明說的---除非有所違背」，然而，當違背時，它為會再成為「言說的」，而且通常是顧客方面實質的不滿意，顧客厭惡。 • 要是BQ顯現，顧客不是中性無意見就是漠不關心，他們將不因而歡悅。
“excitement” aspects of quality • At the other extreme there are product qualities, called excitement factors, which give rise to a great deal of satisfaction when they are achieved but their absence causes no dissatisfaction (graph D). • The first Sony Walkman contained a number of these excitement factors. • Achieving such excellent sound quality from a product which slipped inside your pocket gave rise to customer 'delight'. • Before the introduction of the Walkman, however, customers would not have expressed dissatisfaction about the fact that music players did not fit into their pockets. • This is because the desire for excitement factors is, like the desire for basic factors, unspoken. • The achievement of these excitement factors is said to satisfy 'latent' customer needs.
振奮品質 (EQ) • 顧客需求的第三類型是振奮品質 (EQ)，這類型的品質是奇特的，因為它「未被說出」，顧客亦未期望。 • 如果EQ未現，顧客因為未期望而不會不滿意。 • 而要是EQ出現，而且落實得很完善，則能帶來相富高層度的顧客滿意度， • 振奮品質亦可被描述成為顧客喜悅「WOWs」或者為歡樂的驚歎。
辨認EQ機會 • 現在這些特色是那麼的基本，甚至不會被提及，因此，組織必須追尋一個收集、分析和解釋EQ機會的不會終止和穩定的程序，因為EQ項目會演變成PQ，PQ會變成BQ，組織心需要創造一個環境，以之能經常地在他們的產品、服務之上發展和施行新／高階的EQ。組織保持充滿著，以所設計的特色和機能，而造就出的新鮮和創新的利益的管道是很重要的。 • 一些被發展來辨認EQ機會和協助將之轉換成顧客導向的創新的主要方法為： • 為機會而觀察顧客：觀察研究 • 在效用上進行激動人心的改善 • 消除或改善一個關鍵的產品取捨 • 側面的基準測試
The 'Kano' model of quality • Graph shows basic and excitement factors together, in the'Kano' model of quality, named after its inventor, Dr. Noriaki Kano . • Between the basic and excitement factors, Kano proposes that there is another determinant of customer satisfaction, which he calls 'performance'. • Performance factors cover the range of qualities that customers have come to expect in a particular type of product. • The customer's perception of quality varies in direct proportion to the degree to which the maximum or ideal performance of the product is achieved. • The ideal car, for example, might be one with a stylish appearance, fast acceleration, good handling, low fuel consumption, minimum maintenance, dual air-bags, central locking, electric windows, CD player, radio and mobile phone. • A car with all of these features, as standard, would cause great customer satisfaction. A car with none of them would cause dissatisfaction.
一般需求 • 一般需求(Normal Requirements)：僅是藉由詢問方式了解客戶之需要。 • 滿足(或不滿足)客戶之需求與其現有(或欠缺)的產品與服務相比較。 • 例如：快遞是愈快愈滿意，反之則愈慢愈不滿意。
期望的需求 • 期望的需求(Expected Requirements)：通常是非常基本的需求，客戶常常會忘記提醒，但是一旦無法滿足則會引起注意。 • 此需求為基本的期望，一旦產品或服務欠缺，則導致失去其價值，會產生非常不滿意的結果。 • 然而符合此需求，往往被客戶所忘記。 • 例如：咖啡是熱的，客戶不會去在意，假使一旦是冷的或過燙，則不滿意會發生。 • 故期望的需求必須被滿足。
刺激性需求 • 刺激性需求(Exciting Requirements)：較不容易察覺。 • 其往往超過客戶所期望，故一旦欠缺並不會造成客戶不滿意，若有則會使客戶感到驚喜。 • 例如：在飛行的途中，若有魚子醬(caviar)與香檳酒(champagne)的服務則會非常驚喜，假使沒有客戶亦不會抱怨。 • 故組織有責任，去發覺此客戶的問題，這些需求會隨時間與環境而轉移。
產品本身是沒有價值 • 生產者須促使品質特徵能夠符合客戶效益。 • 產品須確認Dr. Kano之三種需求型式。 • 決定何種效益與何種特徵，以及開發其他需求品質特徵來達到潛在的效益。 • 達到客戶已言明何種效益是最重要的，並能評估現有產品與競爭者的能力來滿足這些效益。 • 改進弱勢特徵來符合以上客戶效益是很重要的並且能夠執行。 • 確保內部運作達到相關特徵，且實際被執行。
“Excitement” in Kano model • 'Unspoken', latent customer needs and wishes unprecedented in competing products. • Satisfying genuine needs, they are not just gimmicks. • Extrapolated from market research aimed at understanding of customer's underlying wishes and their unresolved frustrationswith existing products. • Failure to achieve excitement factors does not lead to customer dissatisfaction
“Basic” in Kano model • 'Unspoken' needs and wishes for features typical of, and expected from, competing products. • Difficult to discover through market research. • Discovered by competing products analysis • Failure to achieve any basic needs will lead to customer dissatisfaction.
“Performance” in Kano model • 'Spoken' needs and wishes for features familiar from competing products. • Readily accessible to market research. • Generally additive in producing customer satisfaction. • Low achievement of performance factors can give rise to customer dissatisfaction.
very difficult to identify • The unspoken determinants of product quality (basic and excitement factors) are very difficult to identify by means of market research. • Customers will not ask for wheels on a car any more than they will ask for a Sony Walkman before it is invented. • The best way to identify 'basic' determinants of quality is by means of competing product analysis. • 'Excitement' factors must be extrapolated from market research aimed at understanding of customer's underlying wishes and their unresolved frustrations with existing products.
basic needs curve • The achievement of 'basic determinants of customer satisfaction is a prerequisite for a successful new product. • Once these basic needs are satisfied, however, there is no point in trying to develop them any further. • The basic needs curve offers a diminishing return of customer satisfaction due to further levels of achievement.
more excitement factors • The achievement of'excitement' determinants of customer satisfaction, on the other hand shows no such signs of tailing off. • The more excitement factors can be achieved the more your customer will be elevated into the heady realms of delight.
minimum level of performance factors • The achievement of performance factors adds customer satisfaction, but not so much as the excitement factors. • The Kano model predicts that, provided you have reached a certain minimum level of performance factors (i.e. to the extent that you have avoided customer dissatisfaction) any extra effort or resources would be better spent achieving excitement factors in preference to more performance factors.
Over time • Over time, factors which were initially in the excitement category will drift down into the performance category and eventually become basic needs. • In the 1950's a television with colour pictures was definitely 'exciting'. • By the mid 1960's it had become a performance factor - it was one of several qualities of a television which contributed to customer's purchasing decision. • Now, in the 1990's if you try to find a new black and white television in the shops, you will have a long hard search. • Colour has become a basic requirement for customers buying televisions. • One consequence of this is that excitement features are only ever exciting once. • Once the first manufacturer has introduced an exciting feature in a new product, it soon becomes one of the many performance factors by which customers judge products and are no longer excited by.
achieving the right balance • Creating quality in a product is, therefore, a matter of achieving the right balance between delivering customer expectations and exceeding them. • The value that a customer attributes to a new product happens in two stages. • Firstly, products have a baseline value, and achieving product quality beneath that baseline will give rise to customer dissatisfaction. • This baseline is determined by the basic, unspoken expectations of customers (cars must have wheels) and a certain expectation of product performance. • Adding value above that baseline partly involves achieving higher levels of performance than are found in competing products. • The other part is to 'excite' customers with product qualities beyond their expectations. • Good product planning incorporates basic, performance and excitement factors into the design specification and aims for customer delight by achieving them all.
競爭產品分析&市場研究 • 隱而不見的產品品質決定因素(基本需求和興奮因素)很難由市場研究加以發現。 • 確認Basic基本品質因素的最好方法是透過 競爭產品分析。 • 興奮Excitement因素可由為了瞭解消費者真正慾求和對現行產品的抱怨的市場研究而得。 • 達成消費者滿意度的基本basic因素是成功商品的先決條件 • 一旦這些基本Basic需求被滿足之後，我們便很難再進一步 發展些需求。
興奮機能基本 • 決定消費者滿意度的興奮因素卻沒有這種拖著尾巴的現象 • 興奮因素達到越多，消費者越能有歡心的感受 • 機能因素的達成可以增加消費者的滿意度，但是程度不如 興奮因素那麼明顯。 • 經過一定時間後，原本屬於興奮因素的項目會轉變成機能 因素，最後變成基本需求。
產品價值 • 因此，創造產品的品質，乃是在達成和超越消費者期望之間達成平衡。 • 消費者對新產品價值的觀點來自於兩個階段。 • 首先，每一個產品都有一基準價值底線，產品品質低於此一基本價值底限時，將會導致消費者的不滿意。 • 此一基準價值底限是由隱而不見的基本期望(車子必須要有輪子)和某些機能因素的期望所決定。
product opportunity • A product opportunity is a mis-match between the needs of customers and the offerings of competing products. • The description of that product opportunity is, and always should be, phrased in terms that customers would understand and that they themselves might use. • The new product should be cheaper, have more features, look more attractive or do things that no other product currently does.
competing product analysis • It is usual to start analyzing competing products before researching markets. • This can give the subsequent market research a nuch clearer focus and allow more structured and meaningful questions to be asked to potential customers. • To describe the variety of ways existing products will compete with the proposed new products. • To identify or evaluate opportunity for innovations. • To set targets which the new product must meet in order to compete effectively. 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 170 設計方法研究室2004
problems of competing product analysis • Deciding what constitutes a competing product. • Establishing what characteristics of competing products to study. • Deciding what criteria to use to set targets for the new product. 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 171 設計方法研究室2004
1. what constitutes a competing product • Deciding what constitutes a competing product is not be as straightforward as it might seem • A Rolls Royce, for example, may safely be concluded not to compete with a compact, economy car. 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 171 設計方法研究室2004
where to draw the line • where to draw the line on competing products should be firmly based on market forces. • The choices customers face when making a purchasing decision will obviously depend upon the range of products stocked in the target sales outlets for your proposed new product. • These ‘stocked’ competitors must, therefore, be the focus for all competing products analysis. 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 171 設計方法研究室2004
2.Judgment for characteristics • Judgment is also needed in deciding what characteristics of competing products to study. • What you want to know about competing products obviously depends upon how you see these products competing with your proposed new product. • If the company’s strategy is to produce basic, low price products, then the price of competing products and the design factors which determine their cost of manufacture will be of greatest importance. 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 171 設計方法研究室2004
3. Setting targets • Setting targets, as described earlier, is the main aim of product planning. • In preparing an opportunity specification, the type of targets you need to set are those of relevance to the business performance of the proposed new product. • These generally amount to price and measures of product value 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 171 設計方法研究室2004
competing product analysis • Product planning begins with a competing product analysis. • A major problem is encountered, immediately. • The company’s current range of 19 products covers 15 different types of product. • A preliminary review reveals that over 450 products could be considered to be competing products. • To analyse them all could take months. 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 180 設計方法研究室2004
competing product analysis • The steering group makes the decision to continue with a preliminary review to try to identify how to go about developing quality, innovative and value-for-money products. • The 450 products are categorized in terms of how innovative they are (or would appear to be to customers), how good they appear in terms of value for money and how good they appear in terms of product quality. 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 180 設計方法研究室2004
competing product analysis • The top products in each category are then analyzed in more detail to see what, if any, features they have in common and what generalizations can be made about the products judged highly. • A short list of 100 products is drawn up by the design team and a sample of each product is purchased. • Four non-technical staff are asked to be the judges; three females, representing the main purchasers of the products and one male. • They are asked, individually, to select the twenty best products from the hundred on three separate occasions. 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 180 設計方法研究室2004
競爭產品分析，Plasteck • 創新的產品價格都比較高(在四種產品類別中是價格最高者) • 品質優良的產品價格也比較高，但低於創新產品價格。 • 根據經銷商的看法，被認為即有創新又品質良好的產品都賣得很好(其中有兩項是同一類型產品中最暢銷產品) • 「值回票價」的產品各價位皆有 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 183 設計方法研究室2004
競爭產品分析， Conclusion • Confirmation of corporate objective to move up-market into quality, innovative products (which are still perceived by customers to be good value for money). • Pricing policy decision — An innovative, high quality new product should be priced around the 90th percentile of the product price range. 資料來源： Baxtor，1995，產品設計與開發，張建成譯 p. 183 設計方法研究室2004
knowledge of the market • One of the main assets of an established company, operating in a familiar market, is its knowledge of that market. • This must be used to the full in developing an opportunity specification. • A difficulty can arise if the people involved in product development are not the people with the best knowledge of customer needs. • The company sales force or the service personnel who maintain and repair products may have a much better understanding. • They should know what customers want, the extent to which the company's existing products provide what they want and how this compares with the performance of competing products.