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Steep Turns. Knowledge of Elements. Turning performance limits Power of the engine load factor limits aerodynamic characteristics Overbanking Tendency. Knowledge of Elements. Static Stability shallow turn - plane tries to return to wings level medium turn - plane remains in medium bank.

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knowledge of elements
Knowledge of Elements
  • Turning performance limits
    • Power of the engine
    • load factor limits
    • aerodynamic characteristics
  • Overbanking Tendency
knowledge of elements3
Knowledge of Elements
  • Static Stability
    • shallow turn - plane tries to return to wings level
    • medium turn - plane remains in medium bank
knowledge of elements4
Knowledge of Elements
    • Steep turn - tries to steepen bank
  • Why overbanking occurs
    • difference in speed of inside and outside wing
    • outside wing develops more lift
knowledge of elements5
Knowledge of Elements
  • with a medium bank the force created balances the force of the inherent lateral stability
  • with a steep bank the lift differential overbalances the lateral stability and counteractive pressure on the ailerons is needed
knowledge of elements6
Knowledge of Elements
  • Effects of Torque
    • in left turn there is a tendency to develop a slight skid. You may need to add right rudder
    • in a right turn the is a tendency to slip. You may need to add right rudder
knowledge of elements7
Knowledge of Elements
  • To maintain a constant airspeed, power must be added
    • As back pressure is applied to maintain lift, induced drag increases so power must be added
select an altitude
Select an Altitude
  • No lower than 1,500 feet AGL
  • +100/-100 so use 1,600
  • Use an altitude that is easy to read
  • Ensure both you and examiner know your starting altitude
reference point
Reference Point
  • Select a prominent landmark to use as a reference point
select an entry airspeed
Select an Entry Airspeed
  • Do clearing turns to ensure the area is clear of other traffic
  • Establish an entry airspeed not to exceed VA
  • Remember that VA changes with gross weight
select an entry airspeed11
Select an Entry Airspeed
  • Load factor at 50o is ~1.5 and increase to 2 at 60o
enter steep turn
Enter Steep Turn
  • Heading toward reference point roll into a coordinated turn with an angle of bank of 50o +5/-5
  • As the turn begins, add back pressure to increase the angle of attack
enter steep turn13
Enter Steep Turn
  • As you go through 30o, add power if necessary to maintain entry altitude and airspeed
enter steep turn14
Enter Steep Turn
  • Trim to relieve excess control pressure
  • Begin rollout one half the angle of bank 20-25 degrees before your reference point
  • Look and clear before all turns.
division of attention
Division of Attention
  • Do not stare at any one object
  • Maintain orientation as well as altitude requires an awareness of the relative position of the nose, the horizon, the wings and the amount of turn
division of attention16
Division of Attention
  • Use visual and instrument references to hold altitude and remain oriented
    • Keep attitude indicator at 50o
  • Roll into a turn in the opposite direction
division of attention17
Division of Attention
    • Keep VSI at or near 0 fpm
    • Check heading and altitude
    • Scan for outside traffic
  • Maintain control of your aircraft
slide18
To recover from an excessive nose-low attitude reduce the angle of bank
  • Add back elevator pressure to raise the nose
  • Reestablish the desire angle of bank
division of attention19
Division of Attention
  • Attempting to raise the nose without decreasing the angle of bank can lead to a descending spiral and overstress of the airplane
division of attention20
Division of Attention
  • If altitude increases, increase the angle of bank with coordinated use of aileron and rudder
roll out 10 10
Roll Out +10/-10
  • Roll wings level when on the entry heading
  • Lead the roll out using one half the angle of bank
maintain altitude 100
Maintain Altitude +100
  • Maintain entry altitude and airspeed throughout the entire maneuver
  • During rollout release the back pressure or if using trim apply
maintain altitude 10023
Maintain Altitude +100
  • forward pressure to lower the nose, reduce the power to maintain the entry altitude and airspeed
  • Trim the airplane
common errors
Common Errors
  • Improper pitch, bank, and power coordination during entry and rollout
  • Uncoordinated use of the flight controls
common errors25
Common Errors
  • Inappropriate control applications
  • Improper technique in correcting altitude deviations
  • Loss or orientation
common errors26
Common Errors
  • Excessive deviation from desired heading during rollout
slide27

(Refer to figure 4.) What is the stall speed of an airplane under a load factor of 2 G's if the unaccelerated stall speed is 60 knots?

A. 66 knots.

B. 74 knots.

C. 84 knots.

slide28

(Refer to figure 4.) What is the stall speed of an airplane under a load factor of 2 G's if the unaccelerated stall speed is 60 knots?

C. 84 knots.

slide29

(Refer to figure 4.) What increase in load factor would take place if the angle of bank were increased from 60° to 80°?

A. 3 G's.

B. 3.5 G's.

C. 4 G's.

slide30

(Refer to figure 4.) What increase in load factor would take place if the angle of bank were increased from 60° to 80°?

C. 4 G's.

slide32

A. decreases and the horizontal component of lift increases.

B. decreases and the horizontal component of lift remains constant.

C. increases and the horizontal component of lift decreases.

slide33

As the angle of bank is increased, the vertical component of lift

A. decreases and the horizontal component of lift increases.

slide35

A. increase the bank and increase airspeed.

B. increase the bank and decrease airspeed.

C. maintain the bank and decrease airspeed.

slide36

To increase the rate of turn and at the same time decrease the radius, a pilot should

B. increase the bank and decrease airspeed.

slide37

Which is correct with respect to rate and radius of turn for an airplane flown in a coordinated turn at a constant altitude?

slide38

A. To maintain a steady rate of turn, the angle of bank must be increased as the airspeed is decreased.

B. The faster the true airspeed, the faster the rate and larger the radius of turn regardless of the angle of bank.

slide40

Which is correct with respect to rate and radius of turn for an airplane flown in a coordinated turn at a constant altitude?

C. For a specific angle of bank and airspeed, the rate and radius of turn will not vary.

slide41

Why is it necessary to increase back elevator pressure to maintain altitude during a turn? To compensate for the

slide42

A. rudder deflection and slight opposite aileron throughout the turn.

B. loss of the horizontal component of lift and the increase in centrifugal force.

C. loss of the vertical component of lift.

slide43

Why is it necessary to increase back elevator pressure to maintain altitude during a turn? To compensate for the

C. loss of the vertical component of lift.

slide44

To maintain altitude during a turn, the angle of attack must be increased to compensate for the decrease in the

A. horizontal component of lift.

B. forces opposing the resultant component of drag.

C. vertical component of lift.

slide45

To maintain altitude during a turn, the angle of attack must be increased to compensate for the decrease in the

C. vertical component of lift.

slide46

The ratio between the total airload imposed on the wing and the gross weight of an aircraft in flight is known as

slide47

A. load factor and has no relation with stall speed.

B. aspect load and directly affects stall speed.

C. load factor and directly affects stall speed.

slide48

The ratio between the total airload imposed on the wing and the gross weight of an aircraft in flight is known as

C. load factor and directly affects stall speed.

slide49

Load factor is the lift generated by the wings of an aircraft at any given time

A. multiplied by the total weight of the aircraft.

B. divided by the basic empty weight of the aircraft.

C. divided by the total weight of the aircraft.

slide50

Load factor is the lift generated by the wings of an aircraft at any given time

C. divided by the total weight of the aircraft.

slide51

For a given angle of bank, in any airplane, the load factor imposed in a coordinated constant-altitude turn

A. is constant and the stall speed decreases.

B. varies with the rate of turn.

C. is constant and the stall speed increases.

slide52

For a given angle of bank, in any airplane, the load factor imposed in a coordinated constant-altitude turn

C. is constant and the stall speed increases.

slide53

Airplane wing loading during a level coordinated turn in smooth air depends upon the

A. true airspeed.

B. rate of turn.

C. angle of bank.

slide54

Airplane wing loading during a level coordinated turn in smooth air depends upon the

C. angle of bank.

slide55

If an aircraft with a gross weight of 2,000 pounds was subjected to a 60° constant-altitude bank, the total load would be

A. 4,000 pounds.

B. 12,000 pounds.

C. 3,000 pounds.

slide56

If an aircraft with a gross weight of 2,000 pounds was subjected to a 60° constant-altitude bank, the total load would be

A. 4,000 pounds.

slide57

While maintaining a constant angle of bank and altitude in a coordinated turn, an increase in airspeed will

slide58

A. increase the rate of turn resulting in no change in load factor.

B. decrease the rate of turn resulting in no change in load factor.

C. decrease the rate of turn resulting in a decreased load factor.

slide59

While maintaining a constant angle of bank and altitude in a coordinated turn, an increase in airspeed will

B. decrease the rate of turn resulting in no change in load factor.

slide61

A. remain constant regardless of air density and the resultant lift vector.

B. vary depending upon the resultant lift vector.

C. vary depending upon speed and air density provided the resultant lift vector varies proportionately.

slide62

While holding the angle of bank constant, if the rate of turn is varied the load factor would

A. remain constant regardless of air density and the resultant lift vector.

slide63

If the airspeed is increased from 90 knots to 135 knots during a level 60° banked turn, the load factor will

A. remain the same but the radius of turn will increase.

B. increase as well as the stall speed.

C. decrease and the stall speed will increase.

slide64

If the airspeed is increased from 90 knots to 135 knots during a level 60° banked turn, the load factor will

A. remain the same but the radius of turn will increase.

slide65

Baggage weighing 90 pounds is placed in a normal category airplane's baggage compartment which is placarded at 100 pounds. If this airplane is subjected to a positive load factor of 3.5 G's, the total load of the baggage would be

slide66

A. 350 pounds and would not be excessive.

B. 315 pounds and would not be excessive.

C. 315 pounds and would be excessive.

slide67

Baggage weighing 90 pounds is placed in a normal category airplane's baggage compartment which is placarded at 100 pounds. If this airplane is subjected to a positive load factor of 3.5 G's, the total load of the baggage would be

B. 315 pounds and would not be excessive.

slide69

A. Power-off stalls occur at higher airspeeds with the gear and flaps down.

B. In a 60° bank the airplane stalls at a lower airspeed with the gear up.

C. Power-on stalls occur at lower airspeeds in shallower banks.

slide70

(Refer to figure 2.) Select the correct statement regarding stall speeds.

C. Power-on stalls occur at lower airspeeds in shallower banks.

slide72

A. 10 knots higher in a 45° bank, power-on stall, than in a wings-level stall.

B. 10 knots higher in a power-on, 60° bank, with gear and flaps up, than with gear and flaps down.

slide73

C. 25 knots lower in a power-off, flaps-up, 60° bank, than in a power-off, flaps-down, wings-level configuration.

slide74

(Refer to figure 2.) Select the correct statement regarding stall speeds. The airplane will stall

B. 10 knots higher in a power-on, 60° bank, with gear and flaps up, than with gear and flaps down.

slide75

Which is true regarding the use of flaps during level turns?

A. The raising of flaps increases the stall speed.

B. The lowering of flaps increases the stall speed.

C. Raising flaps will require added forward pressure on the yoke or stick.

slide76

Which is true regarding the use of flaps during level turns?

A. The raising of flaps increases the stall speed.