SLA: Activities for Meaningful Interaction. LING 561/761 09/13/2006. Computer-Mediated Language Learning Contexts (1).
Research focusing directly on computer-assisted language learning has remained largely on the margins of SLA research (Chapelle, 2004; Hulstijn, 2000) as it has struggled to contextualize itself within a larger theoretical framework of SLA (Chapelle, 1998, 2001; Doughty & Long 2003; Salaberry, 2000).
vary according to the specific medium.
"Because oral interaction is considered by many to be important for second language development, and because synchronous [CMC] bears a striking resemblance to oral communication, it seems logical to assume that language practice through CMC will reap some of the same benefits for second language development as practice through oral interaction."
Pelletieri (2000, p. 59)
“The findings suggest that computer mediated communication (CMC) can provide many of the alleged benefits ascribed to the Interaction Hypothesis, but with greatly increased possibilities for access outside of the classroom environment.”
Blake (2000, p. 120)
"Networked exchanges, since they are text-based and learners must type out or produce the structures in question, appear to constitute an example of forced output ."
Blake (2000, p. 132)
Claims from CMC research include:
Claims from CMC research (cont.):
Claims from ICALL research include:
It is claimed that this juxtaposition of learner error and subsequent reformulation:
1. Enhances the salience of the corrected linguistic form in the feedback (Ishida, 2004; Saxton, 1997)
2. Provides an opportunity for learners to make a cognitive comparison between the targetlike model in the recast and their own nontargetlike production, thus promoting restructuring of their interlanguage representation of the form (Long & Robinson, 1998; Mackey & Philp, 1998; Oliver, 1995; Philp, 2003).
Yet, the extent to which the increased salience of a linguistic form may be a function of a recast is constrained by a broad range of factors, such as:
As Long (2006) notes, there is a need for further research in this area because:
(1) the written modality is a robust environment for manipulating the degrees of saliency of target items and
(2) findings from this line of research may have important pedagogical implications for teachers and materials developers in distance language instruction programs.
1. Output was highly constrained and artificial.
2. Recasts were provided regardless of the presence of
errors in the learners’ utterances.
3. No empirical claims were made about how the written
modality may have impacted the effectiveness of recasts.
This study will explore:
This study will employ a pre-test/post-test/delayed post-test design with a series of experimental treatment tasks designed to isolate the context of interactional mode (oral interaction vs. computer-generated interaction) as the primary independent variable.
Participants for this study will be recruited from the English as a Foreign Language Intensive Program at Georgetown University. All participants will be offered monetary compensation, and will be paid for each session that they attend.
1. Oral Interaction Recast: Participants in this group will participate in dyadic, communicative tasks with a native speaker and receive intensive recasts in response to their errors related to question formation.
2. Computer Guided Interaction Recast: Participants in this group will participate in communicative tasks on a computer and receive intensive recasts generated by the software in response to their errors related to question formation.
3. Control: Participants in this group will only take the pre and post-tests.
The oral and written tasks will include: