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Meaningful Expectations and Consequences. A Workshop Presented by: The New York State Center For School Safety. Mahatma Gandhi said:.

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meaningful expectations and consequences

Meaningful Expectations and Consequences

A Workshop Presented by:

The New York State Center

For School Safety

mahatma gandhi said
Mahatma Gandhi said:
  • You must be the change you wish to see in the world. If you want love in the world, you must be loving. I you want kindness, you must be kind. If you want less aggression, you must be less aggressive.
warm up activity
Warm-up Activity
  • Make a quick list of words or phrases that come to mind when you think of the word:


introductions and logistics
Introductions and Logistics
  • Schedule for the day
  • Location of services for attendees
  • Who’s who
workshop goals
Workshop Goals
  • Explore the concepts and application of meaningful expectations and consequences
  • Plan strategies to incorporate meaningful expectations and consequences into daily school life
  • Give opportunities for sharing of ideas and strategies
what are your expectations
What are your expectations?
  • What do you hope to gain from this workshop?
  • What do you hope to take back to your school?
where are we in education
Where are we in Education?
  • Purpose: From preparing students for technical careers or college to building competencies for student success in today’s world.
  • Diversity: From viewing differences as problems to viewing differences as assets & from exclusion of students who challenge to full inclusion.
where are we in education 2
Where are we in Education?: 2
  • Knowledge: From memorizing and reciting to thinking and doing.
  • Learning: From passive learners to active learners.
  • Teaching: From information giving to guiding and coaching.
where are we in education 3
Where are we in Education?: 3
  • Curricula: From linear, discipline based content to interdisciplinary curricula & From a sequential scope to project focused curricula connected to the real world.
  • Leadership & Decision-Making: From authority-based leadership to site-based management.
  • Assessment/Accountability: From content indicators to performance indicators.
other factors
Other Factors
  • Languaging: How do we frame Education
  • Philosophy shift to Process vs. Product
  • Leadership and REAL Conversations
  • School Climate and Culture
  • SAVE Legislation
  • IDEA Legislation
save legislation
SAVE Legislation
  • District-wide school safety plan
  • Building level emergency response plans
  • Codes of conduct
  • Teacher/principal authority
  • Health curriculum/Violence prevention education
  • Reporting/protections
idea i ndividuals with d isabilities e ducation a ct
IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

Six Principles

  • Free appropriate education
  • Appropriate evaluation
  • IEP
  • Least restrictive environment
  • Parent and student participation in decision making
  • Procedural safeguards
idea impact
IDEA Impact
  • Requirements for data driven decision making and functional behavior assessment have a broader application to the development of school-wide social skills/character education programs and environmental/program modifications to promote positive behavior
  • Identify and experience the climate and culture of your school
  • Identify alternative approaches
albert einstein said
Albert Einstein said:
  • No problem can be solved from the same consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew.
what did you learn
What did you learn?
  • Stand up and walk over to a person you do not know.
  • Tell the person your middle name
  • Speak for one minute about what you learned from the visualization exercise
  • Do you know what they are?
  • Do students know what they are?
  • Do students know what they must do (behaviorally) to meet your expectations?
the focus
The Focus
  • A paradigm shift from:

Traditional/Punitive Discipline

to a

Developmental/Teaching/Support Approach

dealing with behavior at school
Dealing with behavior at school
  • It is the issue for which teachers most frequently request assistance
  • Most common reason for classroom removal and lost education time
    • This impacts on achieving higher academic standards
  • Increasing frequency of behavior problems
    • cultural issues
    • especially in classrooms,
typical responses to problem behavior
Typical responses to problem behavior
  • Punishment
    • Timeout: back of the class, office
    • Detention
    • Suspension
  • Increased control
    • More rules - stricter punishment
    • Security measures
  • Referrals
    • Send them to another school
    • CPSE evaluation, classification, program
    • Clinical: see the psychiatrist, get meds
nature of traditional responses
Nature of traditional responses
  • Typically reactive - we respond after the behavior has happened
  • Focus almost exclusively on the individual student:
    • Seen as the source of the problem
    • Intervention targeted at this level
the impact this has
The impact this has
  • Decreased attention to education
    • Focus on discipline and punishment
    • School works like a legal system
  • Emotional distancing
    • Blame
    • Confusion
    • Self-doubt
      • Students
      • Teachers
what actually happens
What actually happens
  • Studies have demonstrated that: increasing punishment, without providing additional supports, leads to increases in:
        • Aggression
        • Vandalism
        • Truancy
        • Tardiness
        • Dropouts
strengths limitations of reactive discipline
Strengths & Limitations of Reactive Discipline
  • Effective for individuals with an extended repertoire of behavior, who “care” about typical consequences
  • Referenced to the “real world”
  • Ineffective for those who have limited skills, or do not “buy into” the system
  • Reduced efficiency with increased use
  • Ignores functional nature of persistent behavior
  • Does not teach appropriate skills
what should we be asking
What Should We Be Asking
  • Do students know what behaviors are expected?
  • Do students know how to deliver the expected behavior?
  • Are there incentives for demonstrating appropriate behavior?
an alternative effective behavior support
An Alternative:Effective Behavior Support
  • School-wide discipline practices
  • Social Skills Instruction
  • Self-management Strategies
  • Behavioral Interventions and classroom management
  • Functional behavioral assessment based behavioral support planning
  • Active supervision for non-classroom settings
  • Teacher Assistance Team Planning/Problem Solving
effective behavior support
Effective Behavior Support


  • High rates of problem behavior
  • Ineffective and inefficient disciplinary practices
  • Lack of general and specialized behavioral interventions
  • Lack of staff support to address problem behavior
  • Negative school climate
  • High use of crises/ reactive behavior management practices
developing building wide programs
Developing Building-wide Programs
  • Character Education
  • School-wide recognition programs
  • Teaching expected behaviors
    • Poughkeepsie
    • Fern Ridge
fern ridge example
Fern Ridge Example
  • Before
    • Negative school climate
    • High administrative turnover
    • 7,000 referrals, 93-94 year (500 students)
    • React to student behavior by writing referrals
    • No parent involvement
    • Limited proactive problem solving
    • Most at-risk students excluded from school for long periods
the high fives
The High Fives
  • The expectations for students were defined as positive expected behaviors by the following rules:
    • Be Responsible
    • Be Respectful
    • Follow Directions
    • Keep Hands and Feet to Self
    • Be There – Be Ready
establishing the high fives
Establishing the “High Fives”
  • Operationally define each rule
    • observable criteria
    • for each setting in building
  • First two days of school
    • teach & practice the rules
    • passports stamped
  • Incentives
    • positive write-up slips
    • lottery
    • “gold-card”
targeting specific areas
Targeting Specific Areas
  • The locations for teaching and reinforcing the high fives were selected based on referral data.
  • In addition, two activities were chosen for training due to high rates of inappropriate student behavior.
  • Expected behavior was identified for each location/activity.
fern ridge example35
Fern Ridge Example
  • After
    • High Fives training first two days of school
    • Entire staff participates
    • Most at-risk students receive a special Behavior Education Plan
    • After one year, a 47% reduction in referrals
    • Today, a 68% reduction in referrals
getting students to use the high fives
Getting Students to Use the High Fives
  • “One of the most valuable lessons the staff learned about effective behavior support was the fact that, if they wanted to see a measurable change, they would need to teach students the acceptable behavior. Simply expecting positive behavior would not guarantee positive results.”
healthful and meaningful expectations
Healthful and Meaningful Expectations
  • 1. I will be prompt and prepared.
  • 2. I will be an active participant.
  • 3. I will be respectful.
  • 4. I will exercise self control.
  • 5. I will be honest.
  • 6. I will be ethical.
  • 7. I will use common sense in making decisions.
  • 8. I will be a self starter.
  • 9. I will know how and when to assert myself.
  • 10. I will be resilient.
healthful meaningful consequences
Healthful & Meaningful Consequences
  • Self Evaluation and Correction
  • Conferences with Teachers
  • Conferences with Administration
  • Conferences with Parents
  • Time Out (Lunch Period)
  • Time Out ( 10th Period)
  • Time in Quiet Room
  • External Suspension
  • Superintendent's Hearing
what can you do in your school
What can you do in your school?
  • Look at your data!
  • Determine what the current expectations are.
  • Decide what to modify.
  • Identify what behaviors look like in a variety of environments.
  • Develop concrete universal approaches for teaching expectations and letting students know when they are getting it right.
charles darwin said
Charles Darwin said:
  • It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one who is responsive to change.