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Meaningful Expectations and Consequences. A Workshop Presented by: The New York State Center For School Safety. Mahatma Gandhi said:.

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Meaningful Expectations and Consequences

A Workshop Presented by:

The New York State Center

For School Safety

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Mahatma Gandhi said:

  • You must be the change you wish to see in the world. If you want love in the world, you must be loving. I you want kindness, you must be kind. If you want less aggression, you must be less aggressive.

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Warm-up Activity

  • Make a quick list of words or phrases that come to mind when you think of the word:


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Introductions and Logistics

  • Schedule for the day

  • Location of services for attendees

  • Who’s who

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Workshop Goals

  • Explore the concepts and application of meaningful expectations and consequences

  • Plan strategies to incorporate meaningful expectations and consequences into daily school life

  • Give opportunities for sharing of ideas and strategies

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What are your expectations?

  • What do you hope to gain from this workshop?

  • What do you hope to take back to your school?

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Student Achievement/ NYS Standards/National Standards

Systemic School Reform

Foundations for Meaningful Expectations and Consequences

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Where are we in Education?

  • Purpose: From preparing students for technical careers or college to building competencies for student success in today’s world.

  • Diversity: From viewing differences as problems to viewing differences as assets & from exclusion of students who challenge to full inclusion.

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Where are we in Education?: 2

  • Knowledge: From memorizing and reciting to thinking and doing.

  • Learning: From passive learners to active learners.

  • Teaching: From information giving to guiding and coaching.

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Where are we in Education?: 3

  • Curricula: From linear, discipline based content to interdisciplinary curricula & From a sequential scope to project focused curricula connected to the real world.

  • Leadership & Decision-Making: From authority-based leadership to site-based management.

  • Assessment/Accountability: From content indicators to performance indicators.

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Other Factors

  • Languaging: How do we frame Education

  • Philosophy shift to Process vs. Product

  • Leadership and REAL Conversations

  • School Climate and Culture

  • SAVE Legislation

  • IDEA Legislation

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SAVE Legislation

  • District-wide school safety plan

  • Building level emergency response plans

  • Codes of conduct

  • Teacher/principal authority

  • Health curriculum/Violence prevention education

  • Reporting/protections

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IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

Six Principles

  • Free appropriate education

  • Appropriate evaluation

  • IEP

  • Least restrictive environment

  • Parent and student participation in decision making

  • Procedural safeguards

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IDEA Impact

  • Requirements for data driven decision making and functional behavior assessment have a broader application to the development of school-wide social skills/character education programs and environmental/program modifications to promote positive behavior

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  • Identify and experience the climate and culture of your school

  • Identify alternative approaches

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Albert Einstein said:

  • No problem can be solved from the same consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew.

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What did you learn?

  • Stand up and walk over to a person you do not know.

  • Tell the person your middle name

  • Speak for one minute about what you learned from the visualization exercise

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  • Do you know what they are?

  • Do students know what they are?

  • Do students know what they must do (behaviorally) to meet your expectations?

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The Focus

  • A paradigm shift from:

    Traditional/Punitive Discipline

    to a

    Developmental/Teaching/Support Approach

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Dealing with behavior at school

  • It is the issue for which teachers most frequently request assistance

  • Most common reason for classroom removal and lost education time

    • This impacts on achieving higher academic standards

  • Increasing frequency of behavior problems

    • cultural issues

    • especially in classrooms,

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Typical responses to problem behavior

  • Punishment

    • Timeout: back of the class, office

    • Detention

    • Suspension

  • Increased control

    • More rules - stricter punishment

    • Security measures

  • Referrals

    • Send them to another school

    • CPSE evaluation, classification, program

    • Clinical: see the psychiatrist, get meds

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Nature of traditional responses

  • Typically reactive - we respond after the behavior has happened

  • Focus almost exclusively on the individual student:

    • Seen as the source of the problem

    • Intervention targeted at this level

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The impact this has

  • Decreased attention to education

    • Focus on discipline and punishment

    • School works like a legal system

  • Emotional distancing

    • Blame

    • Confusion

    • Self-doubt

      • Students

      • Teachers

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What actually happens

  • Studies have demonstrated that: increasing punishment, without providing additional supports, leads to increases in:

    • Aggression

    • Vandalism

    • Truancy

    • Tardiness

    • Dropouts

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Strengths & Limitations of Reactive Discipline

  • Effective for individuals with an extended repertoire of behavior, who “care” about typical consequences

  • Referenced to the “real world”

  • Ineffective for those who have limited skills, or do not “buy into” the system

  • Reduced efficiency with increased use

  • Ignores functional nature of persistent behavior

  • Does not teach appropriate skills

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What Should We Be Asking

  • Do students know what behaviors are expected?

  • Do students know how to deliver the expected behavior?

  • Are there incentives for demonstrating appropriate behavior?

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An Alternative:Effective Behavior Support

  • School-wide discipline practices

  • Social Skills Instruction

  • Self-management Strategies

  • Behavioral Interventions and classroom management

  • Functional behavioral assessment based behavioral support planning

  • Active supervision for non-classroom settings

  • Teacher Assistance Team Planning/Problem Solving

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Effective Behavior Support


  • High rates of problem behavior

  • Ineffective and inefficient disciplinary practices

  • Lack of general and specialized behavioral interventions

  • Lack of staff support to address problem behavior

  • Negative school climate

  • High use of crises/ reactive behavior management practices

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Developing Building-wide Programs

  • Character Education

  • School-wide recognition programs

  • Teaching expected behaviors

    • Poughkeepsie

    • Fern Ridge

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Fern Ridge Example

  • Before

    • Negative school climate

    • High administrative turnover

    • 7,000 referrals, 93-94 year (500 students)

    • React to student behavior by writing referrals

    • No parent involvement

    • Limited proactive problem solving

    • Most at-risk students excluded from school for long periods

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The High Fives

  • The expectations for students were defined as positive expected behaviors by the following rules:

    • Be Responsible

    • Be Respectful

    • Follow Directions

    • Keep Hands and Feet to Self

    • Be There – Be Ready

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Establishing the “High Fives”

  • Operationally define each rule

    • observable criteria

    • for each setting in building

  • First two days of school

    • teach & practice the rules

    • passports stamped

  • Incentives

    • positive write-up slips

    • lottery

    • “gold-card”

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Targeting Specific Areas

  • The locations for teaching and reinforcing the high fives were selected based on referral data.

  • In addition, two activities were chosen for training due to high rates of inappropriate student behavior.

  • Expected behavior was identified for each location/activity.

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Fern Ridge Example

  • After

    • High Fives training first two days of school

    • Entire staff participates

    • Most at-risk students receive a special Behavior Education Plan

    • After one year, a 47% reduction in referrals

    • Today, a 68% reduction in referrals

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Getting Students to Use the High Fives

  • “One of the most valuable lessons the staff learned about effective behavior support was the fact that, if they wanted to see a measurable change, they would need to teach students the acceptable behavior. Simply expecting positive behavior would not guarantee positive results.”

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Healthful and Meaningful Expectations

  • 1. I will be prompt and prepared.

  • 2. I will be an active participant.

  • 3. I will be respectful.

  • 4. I will exercise self control.

  • 5. I will be honest.

  • 6. I will be ethical.

  • 7. I will use common sense in making decisions.

  • 8. I will be a self starter.

  • 9. I will know how and when to assert myself.

  • 10. I will be resilient.

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Healthful & Meaningful Consequences

  • Self Evaluation and Correction

  • Conferences with Teachers

  • Conferences with Administration

  • Conferences with Parents

  • Time Out (Lunch Period)

  • Time Out ( 10th Period)

  • Time in Quiet Room

  • External Suspension

  • Superintendent's Hearing

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What can you do in your school?

  • Look at your data!

  • Determine what the current expectations are.

  • Decide what to modify.

  • Identify what behaviors look like in a variety of environments.

  • Develop concrete universal approaches for teaching expectations and letting students know when they are getting it right.

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Charles Darwin said:

  • It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one who is responsive to change.