1 . This cow has ingested ethylene glycol anti-freeze and became a downer, just like in milk fever. What is the cause of acidosis in this case? A. ethylene gas B . alcohol dehydrogenase C . glycolic acid D . acetic acid. 2 . Histopath sections showed oxalate
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1. This cow has ingested ethylene glycol
anti-freeze and became a downer,
just like in milk fever. What is the cause
of acidosis in this case?
A. ethylene gas
B. alcohol dehydrogenase
C. glycolic acid
D. acetic acid
2. Histopath sections showed oxalate
crystals in the kidney. What is the lesion
produced by these crystals in the kidney?
A. chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN)
B. acute tubular necrosis
C. acute glomerulonephritis
D. chronic tubular embolism
3. This kidney belonged to a cat
that was showing signs of polyuria
and later on progressed to anuria
indicating severe nephron damage.
Previously the cat was diagnosed
to be positive to Feline Infectious
Peritonitis. There is still hope that
kidney function can be restored if
the following lesions are not
A. glomerulotubular necrosis and
B. interstitial hemorrhage and
C. damaged basement membrane
D. infarct and embolism
4. If this is the kidney and blood of a cow that ingested too much
bracken fern (Pterygium aquilinum), a lot of damage will happen
in the kidney due to the plant alkaloid toxin quercetin.
The diagnosis for this disease is:
A. toxic glomerulonephritis C. bovine enzootic hematuria
B. hemoglobinuric nephritis D. grass tetany
5. If the cow will not immediately die and will continue to eat the
bracken fern, further pathological lesions will occur in the
urinary bladder, which is histopathologically described as:
A. urinary bladder myoma
B. squamous cell carcinoma
C. hemorrhagic lymphoma
D. urinary osteochondroma
6. The cat from which this kidney
was taken obviously ingested a
nephrotoxic agent. Select the item
NOT TRUE for this case:
A. low creatinine
B. high BUN
7. Urinalysis confirmed the
presence of cast. This cast
formation is indicative of:
A. severe tubular necrosis
B. nephrotic syndrome
C. toxic nephritis
D. renal sarcoma
8. This horse had laminitis and was treated with phenylbutazone. Instead
of getting better the horse died and the kidney showed papillary necrosis
secondary to ischemia. Select the statement NOT TRUE for this condition:
A. The phenylbutazone interfered with production of renal prostaglandins.
B. The alteration in prostaglandins caused vasoconstriction and loss of perfusion
to the distal tissues of the kidney.
C. The phenylbutazone produced toxic glomerulonephritis.
D. The vasocontriction caused the papilla to become ischemic and then necrotic.
9. The dog had necrotic brown tissue in the kidney (white arrows). A
sample of urolith is shown in the right picture. Select the statement
that is NOT TRUE in this case:
A. The necrotic tissue can cause ureteral obstruction.
B. Pieces of necrotic tissue can initiate urolith formation.
C. Necrotic tissue is the cause of nephroblastoma.
D. A nidus is necessary for a calculus to form.
10.Renal failure is a general term that results from lesions causing total kidney
damage and loss of function leading to imbalance Ca:P ratio and uremia. Name the
specific lesions associated with renal failure by filling in the blanks for the
A. fibrous _____________
B. endocardial __________
C. fibrinous ___________
F. ulcerative glossitis &
E. ulcerative _________
D. gastric ________ & hemorrhage
11. This dog shows signs of
typical NEPHROTIC SYNDROME.
Enumerate the 4 components
of NEPHROTIC SYNDROME:
12. It is contraindicated to give i.v.
fluid to animals with nephrotic
syndrome because of this danger.
What bad pathological effect will
occur if i.v. fluid is given to animals
with nephrotic syndrome?
13. Another consequence of
nephrotic syndrome is thrombosis.
Can you explain the pathogenesis
of thrombosis in animals with
14.This is a female Dalmatian
with urate calculi as shown in the
lower picture. Select the
statement NOT TRUE for
A.They excrete large quantities
of uric acid due to a deficiency of
uptake of uric acid by the liver.
B.Urate calculi formation affects
only female Dalmatians.
C.They secrete uric acid which is
less soluble than allantoin
D. There is hyperconcentration
of uric acid in the urine and
formation of urate calculi.
15.These are 2 cases in cats
showing hemorrhagic urinary
bladder due to calculus obstruction
of the urinary tract as a cause of
Feline Urologic Syndrome (FUS).
This FUS is most commonly
observed in what sex of the cat ?
16.The diagnosis for this dog’s urinary bladder is
emphysematous cystitis (Fanconi syndrome).
What is the cause of this inflammation?
A. Canine distemper
C. Diabetes mellitus
D. Rat poison (dicoumarol)
17.This is a polycystic kidney from a dog. What is the best
description for the gross appearance of this kidney?
A. moth-eaten appearance
B. cavernous appearance
C. sponge-like appearance
D. swiss cheese-like appearance
18.This is the kidney from a German Shepherd dog with renal
cystadenocarcinoma. What is the pathogenesis of this tumor?
A. acquired - defect in the embryogenesis
B. hereditary - loss of tumor suppressor gene
C. infectious - induced by Canine Distemper virus
D. toxic - induced by heavy metal (Lead) poisoning
19.This is the kidney from a frog with renal carcinoma. T denotes
tumor areas and N are normal tubules.What is the etiology
of this tumor in frogs?
A. acquired - defect in the organogenesis
B. hereditary - duplication of dominant oncogene
C. infectious - induced by herpes virus
D. toxic - induced by heavy metal (Mercury) poisoning
20. This is the kidney of a cat with renal lymphosarcoma.
What disease in the cat should you consider as a rule-out
for the differential diagnosis of this tumor?
21. This is the urinary bladder from a sheep. Name the 3 most
possible tumors that can cause this condition:
22.This disease in sheep (and also in goats) is caused by
contagious ecthyma virus. The following are similar descriptive
terms for this disease EXCEPT ONE:
A. exudative cheilitis
C. nodular gingivitis
D. proliferative stomatitis
23.These are classical pictures of “lumpy jaw” in cattle every
veterinary student should be familiar with.
A. What is the causative agent ?__________________
B. What is the morphological diagnosis ?___________
24.This is a photo of a cow that swallowed something too big
and it got stuck in the esophagus. The cow died. There are 4
points along the esophagus that are narrowest and prone to
choke. Select the point that is NOT PRONE to choke:
A. over the larynx
B. thoracic inlet
C. at the midpoint
D. over the heart base
E. just in front of the diaphragmatic inlet
25. TRUE or FALSE.
In cases of LIPIDOSIS, the distinct margins on the
vacuoles are a giveaway and this is a criteria for
differentiation from vacuolar change due to glycogen,
which do not have crisp borders as lipid vacuoles do.
26. This dog is "headpressing" due to hepatic
encephalopathy. On necropsy, the dog had severe
hepatic cirrhosis or "end-stage" liver disease (right picture)
TRUE or FALSE:
This condition is due to glucoronic acid retention and
retention of toxic oxalates normally removed
from the portal blood by the liver.
27. An area of the liver is shown with classical histopath lesion of
hepatic necrosis. Select the specific nuclear change in this picture:
28. This cocklebur(Xanthium strumarium) if accidentally
ingested by animals can cause hepatic necrosis.
What kind of hepatic necrosis is produced by this plant?
A. centrilobular necrosis
B. mid-zonal necrosis
C. periportal necrosis
29.A section of the liver with bile duct hyperplasia.
TRUE or FALSE:
The first 2 reactions to liver injury are REGENERATION and
FIBROSIS. The 3rd reaction is BILE DUCT HYPERPLASIA.
High power magnification
30.A stray puppy caged in the animal shelter showed jaundice, swollen and
reddened tonsils. Palpation showed a greatly swollen liver. It died and necropsy
confirmed the swollen liver. The histopath is shown above. Since it was a stray
puppy it had no vaccination.
What is your diagnosis ?______________________________
31. Livers A and B are from an adult cattle. Abscess is caused by
by a specific bacteria in liver A and a secondary infection caused
the lesion in liver B. Can you name the primary and secondary
bacterial infection in this 2 livers?
A. Liver A caused by ___________________________
B. Liver B caused by ___________________________
32. A foal 3 weeks old died. Necropsy showed focal hepatitis and
necrosis (A) and high magnification showed bacteria (B) arranged like
A. What is the name of the disease ?_________________
B. What is the bacterial etiology ?___________________
33. A litter of pigs showed unthriftyness. You necropsied one
piglet and you saw lots of Ascaris suum in the small intestine.
Multifocal lesions were found in the liver as shown above. Lung
was apparently normal.
A. What is the layman’s term for the multifocal
lesion in the liver ? ____________________
B. What is the cause of these multifocal liver
34. This is a Chinese Sharpei breed of dog. It is susceptible
to this kind of liver disorder. Histopath of liver stained with
Congo red under polarized light showed birefringence (right
A. liver carcinoma
B. bile duct hyperplasia
C. porto-caval shunt
D. liver amyloidosis
35. A large number of rabbits were affected acutely and died
suddenly. The characteristic signs of blood oozing out from the
nostril was observed (epistaxis).
A. What is the diagnosis ?_______________________
B. What is the etiology? ________________________
36.This disease in cattle particularly affects the liver, as shown in the
left picture. The histopath on the right shows the typical granulomatous
inflammation surrounded by giant cells.
A. What is your diagnosis ?_______________________
B. What is the etiology ? _________________________
C. What special stain can confirm presence of the etiological agent in
the histopath section ? ___________________
37. Moldy corn was accidentally fed to swine and the animals died due
to aflatoxicosis affecting the liver, as shown in the right picture.
What kind of necrosis is produced by aflatoxin in the liver ?:
A. midzonal necrosis
B. peripheral necrosis
C. centrilobular necrosis
38.This picture shows pancreas with neoplastic growths.
TRUE or FALSE:
If the neoplasm arises from the endocrine cells,
specifically the beta cells of the islets, it is termed
an insulinoma, if benign; or islet cell carcinoma, if malignant.
39. A dog was suffering from severe abdominal pain and died.
Necropsy showed that the pain originated from the diseased
pancreas shown in the picture above. Can you pick out the
2 classical lesions from the list below ?
A. pancreatic abscesses and hemorrhages
B. pancreatic fat necrosis and saponification
C. pancreatic amyloidosis and gangrene
D. pancreatic hyperplasia and adenoma
40.This pig (A) was suffering from severe diarrhea and died because
of dehydration. Histopath showed villous atrophy (B) of the small
intestine which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry for the
causative agent (C).
Name the 2 most probable diagnosis ? _________
41.The two lesions depicted
in this dog are plaque
and gingivitis. How do these
lesions result in gingival
A. Gingivitis and plaque result in several types of neoplasia and gingival
hyperplasia is an intermediate stage.
B. The gingivitis and plaque are caused by bacteria that cause edema
and gingival hyperplasia.
C. Gingivitis and plaque lead to periodontal disease and causes
proliferation of fibroblasts in the gingiva.
D. Gingivitis and plaque stimulate macrophages to proliferate and
these make the gums swell.
42.This is a classical lesion in the esophagus of a calf.
Can you identify the lesion ? HINT: the esophagus is lined
by stratified squamous epithelium.
The lesion is: ______________________________
43. It was a hot summer day when you were called by a livestock farmer
because he found his cattle dead on the field with bloated abdomen.
The origin of gas accumulation in ruminants that die must be identified
as either antemortem or postmortem. However, based from your experience
as seen in the picture on the right, you are sure the cause of the bloat is
antemortem, not postmortem.
A. Why was the bloat antemortem ? _______________________
B. Explain the pathogenesis of this bloat ___________________
44. The puppy had bloody diarrhea with characteristic fish odor. Treatment was
attempted but the poor puppy died. Necropsy showed the small intestine with
reddened areas in segmented pattern (A). The serosal surface had “ground glass
appearance” due to fibrin exudation.Histopath exam confirmed your suspicion
when you saw the distinct round blue-to-red bodies within a vacuolated nucleus
that has marginated chromatin (B).
A. What is the diagnosis ? _________________________________
B. Explain the pathogenesis of leukopenia in infected dogs as a complicating
factor of this disease. _______________________________________
45. The piglets were dehydrated due to watery
diarrhea (A). Necropsy showed dilated and fluid-
filled instestine (B). Histopath showed villous atrophy (C).
Electron microscopy identified the causative agent
with characteristic morphological appearance (D).
WHAT IS THE DIAGNOSIS ? _______________________
46. The causative agent gets into enterocytes, mostly crypt cells, of the ileum and
causes them to proliferate. Affected gut (A) is on the top; normal is below There is
a definite "cerebral" pattern to the intestinal wall. Histopath (B) shows the lymphoid
tissues of Peyer’s patches underneath the thick polypoid proliferating mucosa,
not in an orderly form of epithelium. This form of PPE (PorcineProliferative Enteropathy)
is known as porcine intestinal adenomatosis (PIA)
What is the ETIOLOGY ?__________________________________
47. Grossly, the disease can be hemorrhagic (A), or more fibrinous (B)
Either way, the pig has diarrhea and is dehydrating out its hind end.
The feces are reported to be quite characteristic because of all the eclectic
contents. They are described as being gray and greasy, and often flecked
with fibrin or blood. The pigs, because of the chronic diarrhea, are often
described as being "slab-sided" because they lose the nice back fat
that makes them appear rounded and slightlyroly-poly.
A. What is the diagnosis ? _______________________
B. What is the etiology ? ________________________
48.A dairy farmer called you because some of his cows
were suffering from diarrhea. One animal is shown in
picture A with unthrifty appearance and with swollen
cervical lymph nodes. Picture B shows affected and normal
intestine above and below, respectively. Take note of the
thick corrugated intestinal mucosa. Picture C shows the
big ballooned macrophages in the intestinal mucosa and
picture D the same section stained with acid-fast showed
that the big ballooned macrophages contained
A. What is the name of the disease ?
B. What is the etiology of this disease ?
49.This is usually a systemic disease in dogs and other animals,
with the worst lesions in the lung. Sometimes there are lesions in
the intestines as well (A). The lamina propria gets chock-full of
macrophages filled with the organism and there is backup of
lymph flow (picture A, arrows). On cut section, the lamina propria
is markedly expanded (B). There is a macrophage in the center,
filled with the organism (C).
WHAT IS THE ETIOLOGY ? ____________________________
50. A very thin puppy was brought to your clinic with very pale mucous membrane.
Fecal examination showed the presence of lots of parasite eggs (A). You tried to
save the poor puppy but it finally died. Necropsy examination showed bloody small
intestine (B) and closer examination revealed adult worms in large numbers (C).
What is the diagnosis for this case ? _____________________
51. - 52. You are called upon by the owner of a 1000 sow level farm to investigate a disease outbreak. These are your preliminary findings:
d. Encephalomalacia in chickens
d. Well demarcated purple to gray nodule on the diaphragmatic lobe
d. Pseudorabies virus
d. Generalized edema
d. Circulating microfilariae are generally nonclinical
Among the diseases below, which one is the MOST LIKELY?
62. Give one differential diagnosis for this disease _____________
a. Healthy, well-fed animals are particularly at risk
b. Epistaxis can occur in horses with guttural pouch mycosis
c. The fungus has a feco-oral route of infection
d. H&E stain is helpful in diagnosing the presence of fungus
65. Give one differential diagnosis for Toxoplasma gondii
d. High protein diet can cause atherosclerosis in domestic cats
b. Chronic cough
c. Rough haircoat
a. suckling piglets
b. adult boars
d. weaned pigs