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1 . This cow has ingested ethylene glycol anti-freeze and became a downer, just like in milk fever. What is the cause of acidosis in this case? A. ethylene gas B . alcohol dehydrogenase C . glycolic acid D . acetic acid. 2 . Histopath sections showed oxalate

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1. This cow has ingested ethylene glycol

anti-freeze and became a downer,

just like in milk fever. What is the cause

of acidosis in this case?

A. ethylene gas

B. alcohol dehydrogenase

C. glycolic acid

D. acetic acid

2. Histopath sections showed oxalate

crystals in the kidney. What is the lesion

produced by these crystals in the kidney?

A. chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN)

B. acute tubular necrosis

C. acute glomerulonephritis

D. chronic tubular embolism


3. This kidney belonged to a cat

that was showing signs of polyuria

and later on progressed to anuria

indicating severe nephron damage.

Previously the cat was diagnosed

to be positive to Feline Infectious

Peritonitis. There is still hope that

kidney function can be restored if

the following lesions are not


A. glomerulotubular necrosis and

interstitial nephrosis

B. interstitial hemorrhage and

tubular edema

C. damaged basement membrane

and fibrosis

D. infarct and embolism


4. If this is the kidney and blood of a cow that ingested too much

bracken fern (Pterygium aquilinum), a lot of damage will happen

in the kidney due to the plant alkaloid toxin quercetin.

The diagnosis for this disease is:

A. toxic glomerulonephritis C. bovine enzootic hematuria

B. hemoglobinuric nephritis D. grass tetany

5. If the cow will not immediately die and will continue to eat the

bracken fern, further pathological lesions will occur in the

urinary bladder, which is histopathologically described as:

A. urinary bladder myoma

B. squamous cell carcinoma

C. hemorrhagic lymphoma

D. urinary osteochondroma


6. The cat from which this kidney

was taken obviously ingested a

nephrotoxic agent. Select the item

NOT TRUE for this case:

A. low creatinine

B. high BUN

7. Urinalysis confirmed the

presence of cast. This cast

formation is indicative of:

A. severe tubular necrosis

B. nephrotic syndrome

C. toxic nephritis

D. renal sarcoma


8. This horse had laminitis and was treated with phenylbutazone. Instead

of getting better the horse died and the kidney showed papillary necrosis

secondary to ischemia. Select the statement NOT TRUE for this condition:

A. The phenylbutazone interfered with production of renal prostaglandins.

B. The alteration in prostaglandins caused vasoconstriction and loss of perfusion

to the distal tissues of the kidney.

C. The phenylbutazone produced toxic glomerulonephritis.

D. The vasocontriction caused the papilla to become ischemic and then necrotic.


9. The dog had necrotic brown tissue in the kidney (white arrows). A

sample of urolith is shown in the right picture. Select the statement

that is NOT TRUE in this case:

A. The necrotic tissue can cause ureteral obstruction.

B. Pieces of necrotic tissue can initiate urolith formation.

C. Necrotic tissue is the cause of nephroblastoma.

D. A nidus is necessary for a calculus to form.


10.Renal failure is a general term that results from lesions causing total kidney

damage and loss of function leading to imbalance Ca:P ratio and uremia. Name the

specific lesions associated with renal failure by filling in the blanks for the

following pictures:

A. fibrous _____________

B. endocardial __________

C. fibrinous ___________

F. ulcerative glossitis &


E. ulcerative _________

D. gastric ________ & hemorrhage


11. This dog shows signs of


Enumerate the 4 components


A. _________________

B. _________________

C. _________________



12. It is contraindicated to give i.v.

fluid to animals with nephrotic

syndrome because of this danger.

What bad pathological effect will

occur if i.v. fluid is given to animals

with nephrotic syndrome?


13. Another consequence of

nephrotic syndrome is thrombosis.

Can you explain the pathogenesis

of thrombosis in animals with

nephrotic syndrome?





14.This is a female Dalmatian

with urate calculi as shown in the

lower picture. Select the

statement NOT TRUE for


A.They excrete large quantities

of uric acid due to a deficiency of

uptake of uric acid by the liver.

B.Urate calculi formation affects

only female Dalmatians.

C.They secrete uric acid which is

less soluble than allantoin

D. There is hyperconcentration

of uric acid in the urine and

formation of urate calculi.


15.These are 2 cases in cats

showing hemorrhagic urinary

bladder due to calculus obstruction

of the urinary tract as a cause of

Feline Urologic Syndrome (FUS).

This FUS is most commonly

observed in what sex of the cat ?

A. female

B. male


16.The diagnosis for this dog’s urinary bladder is

emphysematous cystitis (Fanconi syndrome).

What is the cause of this inflammation?

A. Canine distemper

B. Leptospirosis

C. Diabetes mellitus

D. Rat poison (dicoumarol)


17.This is a polycystic kidney from a dog. What is the best

description for the gross appearance of this kidney?

A. moth-eaten appearance

B. cavernous appearance

C. sponge-like appearance

D. swiss cheese-like appearance


18.This is the kidney from a German Shepherd dog with renal

cystadenocarcinoma. What is the pathogenesis of this tumor?

A. acquired - defect in the embryogenesis

B. hereditary - loss of tumor suppressor gene

C. infectious - induced by Canine Distemper virus

D. toxic - induced by heavy metal (Lead) poisoning


19.This is the kidney from a frog with renal carcinoma. T denotes

tumor areas and N are normal tubules.What is the etiology

of this tumor in frogs?

A. acquired - defect in the organogenesis

B. hereditary - duplication of dominant oncogene

C. infectious - induced by herpes virus

D. toxic - induced by heavy metal (Mercury) poisoning


20. This is the kidney of a cat with renal lymphosarcoma.

What disease in the cat should you consider as a rule-out

for the differential diagnosis of this tumor?



21. This is the urinary bladder from a sheep. Name the 3 most

possible tumors that can cause this condition:

1. _____________________________

2. _____________________________

3. _____________________________


22.This disease in sheep (and also in goats) is caused by

contagious ecthyma virus. The following are similar descriptive

terms for this disease EXCEPT ONE:

A. exudative cheilitis

B. orf

C. nodular gingivitis

D. proliferative stomatitis


23.These are classical pictures of “lumpy jaw” in cattle every

veterinary student should be familiar with.

A. What is the causative agent ?__________________

B. What is the morphological diagnosis ?___________



24.This is a photo of a cow that swallowed something too big

and it got stuck in the esophagus. The cow died. There are 4

points along the esophagus that are narrowest and prone to

choke. Select the point that is NOT PRONE to choke:

A. over the larynx

B. thoracic inlet

C. at the midpoint

D. over the heart base

E. just in front of the diaphragmatic inlet


25. TRUE or FALSE.

In cases of LIPIDOSIS, the distinct margins on the

vacuoles are a giveaway and this is a criteria for

differentiation from vacuolar change due to glycogen,

which do not have crisp borders as lipid vacuoles do.


26. This dog is "headpressing" due to hepatic

encephalopathy. On necropsy, the dog had severe

hepatic cirrhosis or "end-stage" liver disease (right picture)


This condition is due to glucoronic acid retention and

retention of toxic oxalates normally removed

from the portal blood by the liver.


27. An area of the liver is shown with classical histopath lesion of

hepatic necrosis. Select the specific nuclear change in this picture:

A. pyknosis

B. karyorrhexis

C. karyolysis


28. This cocklebur(Xanthium strumarium) if accidentally

ingested by animals can cause hepatic necrosis.

What kind of hepatic necrosis is produced by this plant?

A. centrilobular necrosis

B. mid-zonal necrosis

C. periportal necrosis


29.A section of the liver with bile duct hyperplasia.


The first 2 reactions to liver injury are REGENERATION and



Low power magnification

High power magnification

30.A stray puppy caged in the animal shelter showed jaundice, swollen and

reddened tonsils. Palpation showed a greatly swollen liver. It died and necropsy

confirmed the swollen liver. The histopath is shown above. Since it was a stray

puppy it had no vaccination.

What is your diagnosis ?______________________________




31. Livers A and B are from an adult cattle. Abscess is caused by

by a specific bacteria in liver A and a secondary infection caused

the lesion in liver B. Can you name the primary and secondary

bacterial infection in this 2 livers?

A. Liver A caused by ___________________________

B. Liver B caused by ___________________________




32. A foal 3 weeks old died. Necropsy showed focal hepatitis and

necrosis (A) and high magnification showed bacteria (B) arranged like

Chinese character.

A. What is the name of the disease ?_________________

B. What is the bacterial etiology ?___________________


33. A litter of pigs showed unthriftyness. You necropsied one

piglet and you saw lots of Ascaris suum in the small intestine.

Multifocal lesions were found in the liver as shown above. Lung

was apparently normal.

A. What is the layman’s term for the multifocal

lesion in the liver ? ____________________

B. What is the cause of these multifocal liver

lesion ?______________________


34. This is a Chinese Sharpei breed of dog. It is susceptible

to this kind of liver disorder. Histopath of liver stained with

Congo red under polarized light showed birefringence (right


A. liver carcinoma

B. bile duct hyperplasia

C. porto-caval shunt

D. liver amyloidosis


35. A large number of rabbits were affected acutely and died

suddenly. The characteristic signs of blood oozing out from the

nostril was observed (epistaxis).

A. What is the diagnosis ?_______________________

B. What is the etiology? ________________________


36.This disease in cattle particularly affects the liver, as shown in the

left picture. The histopath on the right shows the typical granulomatous

inflammation surrounded by giant cells.

A. What is your diagnosis ?_______________________

B. What is the etiology ? _________________________

C. What special stain can confirm presence of the etiological agent in

the histopath section ? ___________________


37. Moldy corn was accidentally fed to swine and the animals died due

to aflatoxicosis affecting the liver, as shown in the right picture.

What kind of necrosis is produced by aflatoxin in the liver ?:

A. midzonal necrosis

B. peripheral necrosis

C. centrilobular necrosis


38.This picture shows pancreas with neoplastic growths.


If the neoplasm arises from the endocrine cells,

specifically the beta cells of the islets, it is termed

an insulinoma, if benign; or islet cell carcinoma, if malignant.


39. A dog was suffering from severe abdominal pain and died.

Necropsy showed that the pain originated from the diseased

pancreas shown in the picture above. Can you pick out the

2 classical lesions from the list below ?

A. pancreatic abscesses and hemorrhages

B. pancreatic fat necrosis and saponification

C. pancreatic amyloidosis and gangrene

D. pancreatic hyperplasia and adenoma





40.This pig (A) was suffering from severe diarrhea and died because

of dehydration. Histopath showed villous atrophy (B) of the small

intestine which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry for the

causative agent (C).

Name the 2 most probable diagnosis ? _________


41.The two lesions depicted

in this dog are plaque

and gingivitis. How do these

lesions result in gingival


A. Gingivitis and plaque result in several types of neoplasia and gingival

hyperplasia is an intermediate stage.

B. The gingivitis and plaque are caused by bacteria that cause edema

and gingival hyperplasia.

C. Gingivitis and plaque lead to periodontal disease and causes

proliferation of fibroblasts in the gingiva.

D. Gingivitis and plaque stimulate macrophages to proliferate and

these make the gums swell.


42.This is a classical lesion in the esophagus of a calf.

Can you identify the lesion ? HINT: the esophagus is lined

by stratified squamous epithelium.

The lesion is: ______________________________


43. It was a hot summer day when you were called by a livestock farmer

because he found his cattle dead on the field with bloated abdomen.

The origin of gas accumulation in ruminants that die must be identified

as either antemortem or postmortem. However, based from your experience

as seen in the picture on the right, you are sure the cause of the bloat is

antemortem, not postmortem.

A. Why was the bloat antemortem ? _______________________

B. Explain the pathogenesis of this bloat ___________________





44. The puppy had bloody diarrhea with characteristic fish odor. Treatment was

attempted but the poor puppy died. Necropsy showed the small intestine with

reddened areas in segmented pattern (A). The serosal surface had “ground glass

appearance” due to fibrin exudation.Histopath exam confirmed your suspicion

when you saw the distinct round blue-to-red bodies within a vacuolated nucleus

that has marginated chromatin (B).

A. What is the diagnosis ? _________________________________

B. Explain the pathogenesis of leukopenia in infected dogs as a complicating

factor of this disease. _______________________________________







45. The piglets were dehydrated due to watery

diarrhea (A). Necropsy showed dilated and fluid-

filled instestine (B). Histopath showed villous atrophy (C).

Electron microscopy identified the causative agent

with characteristic morphological appearance (D).

WHAT IS THE DIAGNOSIS ? _______________________




46. The causative agent gets into enterocytes, mostly crypt cells, of the ileum and

causes them to proliferate. Affected gut (A) is on the top; normal is below There is

a definite "cerebral" pattern to the intestinal wall. Histopath (B) shows the lymphoid

tissues of Peyer’s patches underneath the thick polypoid proliferating mucosa,

not in an orderly form of epithelium. This form of PPE (PorcineProliferative Enteropathy)

is known as porcine intestinal adenomatosis (PIA)

What is the ETIOLOGY ?__________________________________




47. Grossly, the disease can be hemorrhagic (A), or more fibrinous (B)

Either way, the pig has diarrhea and is dehydrating out its hind end.

The feces are reported to be quite characteristic because of all the eclectic

contents. They are described as being gray and greasy, and often flecked

with fibrin or blood. The pigs, because of the chronic diarrhea, are often

described as being "slab-sided" because they lose the nice back fat

that makes them appear rounded and slightlyroly-poly.

A. What is the diagnosis ? _______________________

B. What is the etiology ? ________________________





48.A dairy farmer called you because some of his cows

were suffering from diarrhea. One animal is shown in

picture A with unthrifty appearance and with swollen

cervical lymph nodes. Picture B shows affected and normal

intestine above and below, respectively. Take note of the

thick corrugated intestinal mucosa. Picture C shows the

big ballooned macrophages in the intestinal mucosa and

picture D the same section stained with acid-fast showed

that the big ballooned macrophages contained

acid-fast bacilli.


A. What is the name of the disease ?

B. What is the etiology of this disease ?





49.This is usually a systemic disease in dogs and other animals,

with the worst lesions in the lung. Sometimes there are lesions in

the intestines as well (A). The lamina propria gets chock-full of

macrophages filled with the organism and there is backup of

lymph flow (picture A, arrows). On cut section, the lamina propria

is markedly expanded (B). There is a macrophage in the center,

filled with the organism (C).

WHAT IS THE ETIOLOGY ? ____________________________





50. A very thin puppy was brought to your clinic with very pale mucous membrane.

Fecal examination showed the presence of lots of parasite eggs (A). You tried to

save the poor puppy but it finally died. Necropsy examination showed bloody small

intestine (B) and closer examination revealed adult worms in large numbers (C).

What is the diagnosis for this case ? _____________________


51. - 52. You are called upon by the owner of a 1000 sow level farm to investigate a disease outbreak. These are your preliminary findings:

  • Pigs are found dead in the grower and finisher
  • Some live pigs are lame and have swollen joints
  • Purple, elevated skin lesions
  • Necropsy: vegetative endocarditis, petechial hemorrhage on kidney
  • Give 2 probable diagnosis for this disease



53 which sentence is not true about streptococcus infection in pigs
53. Which sentence is NOT TRUE about Streptococcus infection in pigs?
  • Causes meningitis and polyserositis in piglets
  • Aujezky’s disease, Glasser’s disease and Septicaemic E. coli are included as differential diagnosis
  • It is not zoonotic
  • Caused by gram positive, hemolytic Streptococcus suis type 2
54 which lesion is not caused by vitamin e deficiency
54. Which lesion is NOT caused by Vitamin E deficiency?
  • Mulberry heart disease in pigs
  • Hepatic necrosis
  • Gastric ulcer

d. Encephalomalacia in chickens

55 which sentence is true about leptospirosis
55. Which sentence is TRUE about Leptospirosis?
  • People cannot be infected by contact of infected pig urine
  • Abortions, stillbirth and neonatal mortality are clinical signs of chronic Leptospira pomona infection.
  • Infarction of the kidney is a common lesion in chronic leptopirosis
  • Abortion by leptospirosis does not cause inflammation in the placenta
56 which lung lesion is most likely seen in mycoplasma pneumonia
56. Which lung lesion is MOST LIKELY seen in Mycoplasma pneumonia?
  • Diffuse interstitial pneumonia
  • Petechial to ecchymotic hemorrhage
  • Purple to gray consolidation of the cranioventral part of the lungs

d. Well demarcated purple to gray nodule on the diaphragmatic lobe

57. Which swine disease causes the following lesions?Fibrinous meningitis, pericarditis, pleuritis, peritonitis and arthritis
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
  • Hemophilus parasuis
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica

d. Pseudorabies virus

58 which is not a necropsy finding in a case of congestive heart failure
58. Which is not a necropsy finding in a case of congestive heart failure?
  • Renal petechiation
  • Hepatic congestion
  • Ventricular dilation

d. Generalized edema

59 which is not true about dirofilaria immitis in dogs
59. Which is NOT TRUE about Dirofilaria immitis in dogs?
  • Dead adult heartworms can be transported from the pulmonary artery to the lungs and cause pulmonary embolism.
  • The number of circulating microfilariae increases during cold weather
  • Heartworms can cause cor pulmonale

d. Circulating microfilariae are generally nonclinical

60 which larval stage of heartworms causes antigenic stimulation and eosinophilia in the host
60. Which larval stage of heartworms causes antigenic stimulation and eosinophilia in the host?
  • L1
  • L2
  • L3
  • L4

e. L5

61. Case: a 1-year-old cow with clinical signs of emaciation, rough hair coat, and diarrhea. The cow till has a good appetite

Among the diseases below, which one is the MOST LIKELY?

  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
  • Johne’s disease
  • Streptococcus sp.

d. Rinderpest

62. Give one differential diagnosis for this disease _____________

63 which is true about pulmonary aspergillosis
63. Which is TRUE about pulmonary aspergillosis?

a.    Healthy, well-fed animals are particularly at risk

b.   Epistaxis can occur in horses with guttural pouch mycosis

c.   The fungus has a feco-oral route of infection

d. H&E stain is helpful in diagnosing the presence of fungus

64 which is not true about the pathogenesis of toxoplasma gondii
64. Which is NOT TRUE about the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii?
  • Circulating tachyzoites are resistant to antibody
  • It is an intracellular parasite
  • Congenital infection is a common way of infection in sheep
  • Tachyzoites evade the host’s immune system by entering macrophages by phagocytosis

65. Give one differential diagnosis for Toxoplasma gondii

66 which is true about atherosclerosis in animals
66. Which is TRUE about atherosclerosis in animals?
  • It is common in domestic animals
  • Hypothryoid or diabetic dogs are at risk of getting atherosclerosis
  • It literally means hardening of the arteries

d. High protein diet can cause atherosclerosis in domestic cats

67 which is not a clinical sign of mycoplasma pneumonia in swine
67. Which is NOT a clinical sign of Mycoplasma pneumonia in swine?
  • Slow growth although appetite is normal

b. Chronic cough

c. Rough haircoat

d. Epistaxis

68. This is a histopathological findings of a canine kidney with leptospirosis. What cell is pointed inside the expanded interstitium?

a. Neutrophil

b. Eosinophil

c. Lymphocyte

  • Epithelial cell
69 this is from a pig streptococcus suis what is the correct description for this lesion
69. This is from a pig Streptococcus suis. What is the correct description for this lesion?
  • a. Mucopurulent polyarthritis
  • b. Serous polyarthritis
  • c. Hemorrhagic polyarthritis
  • d. Fibrinopurulent polyarthritis
70 glasser s disease commonly occurs after stressful condition in which pigs
70. Glasser’s disease commonly occurs after stressful condition in which pigs?

a. suckling piglets

b. adult boars

c. sows

d. weaned pigs