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digestion & nutrition Chapter 36 outline Nutrition introduction Nutrition requirements Nutritional disorders Nutrition Required for homeostasis Provides energy for cellular work Provides materials body cannot manufacture- monomers, minerals, vitamins Heat for body temperature maintenance

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outline
outline
  • Nutrition introduction
  • Nutrition requirements
  • Nutritional disorders
nutrition
Nutrition
  • Required for homeostasis
    • Provides energy for cellular work
    • Provides materials body cannot manufacture- monomers, minerals, vitamins
    • Heat for body temperature maintenance
    • Repair & maintenance of tissues
  • Measured in calories
    • 1 gram 1c
    • Measures amount of energy in food source
    • Different food sources hold different energy values
metabolic rate
Metabolic rate
  • D= Rate of energy consumption
  • Basal metabolic rate (bmr)
    • Maintain just body function
  • Ave 1300-2000 kcal/day
  • Will vary amongst individuals based on a variety of factors
    • Age -size
    • Sex -stress
    • Exercise -sleep
    • Genetics
thin craze
Thin Craze
  • 95% women report disgust with body
  • Fashion models weigh 23% less than average woman
  • Thin represents
    • Attractiveness, control, sucess
nutritional disorders
Nutritional disorders
  • Malnutrition
  • Obesity
malnutrition
Malnutrition
  • D= deficiency in 1+ essential nutrients
  • Inadequate food intake or disease
  • Body breaks down to fuel metabolism
  • 800m worldwide
    • 75% of americans do not meet their RDA
  • Lack of education
  • Children greatest impacted group
  • Protein deficiency
    • Main source of complete food sources
    • expensive
anorexia
Anorexia
  • Highest death rate of any psychological disorder
  • Low blood pressure, bone loss, kidney, liver, heart damage
obesity
Obesity
  • D= Inappropriate high ratio of weight to height
  • Eating disorder of developed nations- over nourishment
    • ¼ of Americans
    • 1992-2006 obesity in Americans increased from 22.9 to 30.5%
  • Child obesity doubled since 80s
  • Health risks
    • Cardiovascular disease- Heart attack
    • Diabetes- type II
    • Cancer
diabetes type ii
Diabetes Type II
  • Most common form of diabetes
    • 90-95% of diabetes cases
  • Insulin deficiency or insulin resistance
  • Insulin important in glucose transport from blood to cells
  • Associated with
    • Obesity, high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol levels, heart disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome
food addiction
Food “Addiction” ?
  • Similar neural pathways as drugs
  • high-fat foods stimulate opioids or 'pleasure chemicals' in the brain.
  • Dopamine reward system
    • Dopamine released when food eaten
    • Rewards body for survival enhancing behaviors
      • Obese reduced number of dopamine receptors
  • Similar to drug addiction alters of brain chemistry
  • Lab rats
    • Diet 25% sugar
    • Withdrawal symptoms
      • Shakes, teeth chattering
chocolate addiction
Chocolate Addiction?
  • Contain compounds that mimic psychoactive drugs
    • Contain cannabinoids
  • Result in Heightened sensitivity and euphoria
hormone imbalance
Hormone imbalance
  • Leptin regulates food consumption
  • Inhibitory effect on eating
  • Monitors fat reserves
  • Rise in fat levels reduce response to leptin
    • Difficult for overweight person to lose weight (drop in leptin triggers starvation response)
industry culture
Industry/ Culture
  • Push for larger profit margins results in cheaper, but unhealthier products
  • Hydrogenated oils
  • High concentration fructose syrups
obesity prevention
Obesity Prevention
  • Well balanced diet
  • Exercise
  • Portion size
proper nutrition
Proper nutrition
  • Provides energy for cellular work
  • Provides materials body cannot manufacture-
    • Monomers
    • Minerals
    • vitamins
recommended daily allowances
Recommended daily allowances
  • Minimum standards for preventing nutrient deficiencies
  • Standards
  • Dietary supplements
slide36
FDA
  • Food & Drug Administration
  • Food products, human & animal drugs, animal feed
  • Monitors manufacture, import, transport, storage & sale of approx $1Trillion worth of products
  • Define serving sizes, recommended daily allowances
old food pyramid
Old Food Pyramid

Fat is bad, carbs are good

food labels
Food Labels
  • Profile contents of food products
  • “Low fat” “Light”
  • Informed decisions
  • Cals = Kcals
  • Overall profile to make informed decisions

not just about calorie content

essential nutrients
Essential Nutrients
  • D= Substances your body needs that it cannot manufacture
  • Essential amino acids
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Essential fatty acids
essential amino acids
Essential Amino Acids
  • ?? Amino acids?
  • 12 can be manufactured by the body
  • 8= essential amino acids attained from food sources
  • Animal foods are complete
    • Meat, eggs, milk
  • Vegetable foods are incomplete
    • Mixture- grains & legumes
essential fatty acid
Essential Fatty Acid
  • D= Fats and lipids that the body cannot manufacture
    • Glycerol & fatty acids
  • Unsaturated fats
    • Linoleic acid
      • Phospholipid membrane
  • Fats from vegetable sources
many fats
Many Fats
  • Saturated fats
    • Meat, dairy, eggs, coconut oil
  • Unsaturated fats (Hydrogenated fats & oils)
    • Monounsaturated fats
      • Olive & canola oil, nuts, avocado
    • Polyunsaturated fats
      • Sunflower, sesame, corn, soybean oils, nuts & seeds
    • Omega-3-fats
      • Fatty fish- salmon, trout, herring, mackeral
    • Trans fats
trans fats
Trans Fats
  • As bad if not worse than saturated fats
  • Health risks
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Inability of body to process
    • Increases bad cholesterol (LDL)
    • Lowers good cholesterol (HDL)
  • Found in…Vegetable shortening, Hard margarines, Cookies, crackers, fried foods, packaged snacks …..
good fats vs bad fats
Good Fats vs Bad fats
  • The good
    • Unsaturated fats like
      • Mono- & polyunsaturated fats
      • Omega-3-fats
    • Raise “good cholesterol”
      • High density cholesterol (HDL)
      • Transport excess or unused cholesterol back to liver to be disposed of
      • Reduces atherosclerosis of arteries
  • The Bad
    • Saturated fats & trans fats
    • Raise “bad cholesterol”
      • Low density cholesterol (LDL)
      • Carry cholesterol from liver to cells & tissues
      • Some is good a lot leads to atherosclerosis
slide53
Nuts
  • Good fats can lower heart disease
  • Contain good fats & oils
  • Walnuts
    • Omega-3-fatty acids
  • Almonds
    • Vit E, Magnesium, calcium
  • Peanuts
    • Folate, iron
  • Pistachios
    • Potassium
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • All carbs converted to glucose
  • Simple sugars- disacharrides
    • Sweet- sucrose, fructose (fruit), Maltose (veggies), Lactose (milk)
    • Processed foods- candy, syrups, cereals
  • Complex Carbs
    • Grain breads, cereals, legumes, starchy vegetables
    • Slower to process
  • Refined vs Whole grain
    • Removes vitamins, minerals, & fiber
whole grains
Bran.

outer seed coat

Niacin (b3), Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), magnesium, phosphorus, iron and zinc

fiber.

Germ

Plant embryo

B1, B2, B3, vitamin E, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and zinc

protein and some fat

Endosperm

bulk of the seed

Bulk of protein and carbohydrates

small amounts of vitamins and minerals

Whole Grains
whole grains vs refined grains
Barley

Brown rice

Buckwheat

Bulgar

Millet

Oatmeal

Popcorn

Whole wheat bread or pasta or crackers

Wild rice

Corn flakes

Couscous

Enriched pasta

Grits

Pretzels

White bread

White rice

Whole grains vs refined grains
fiber
Fiber
  • 20-35g per week
  • Colon health
    • Lowers rate of colon cancer
  • Lowers blood cholesterol levels
  • Lowers type II diabetes
  • Lowers cardiovascular disease
  • Lowers rate over lifetime
  • Increases satiation
    • Lowers energy dense foods
    • Slows digestion
fiber types
Fiber types
  • Soluble fibers
    • Water soluble
    • Beans, Oatmeal, peas, lentils
    • Apples, mango, plum, kiwi, blackberry, peaches, citrus, figs, pears, strawberries, apples
    • Prevents cholesterol from being absorbed
    • Regulates spikes in blood sugar levels
fiber types59
Fiber types
  • Insoluble fibers
  • Water insoluble
  • Whole wheat grains, wheat bran, brown rice, bulgur, seeds
  • Veggies- carrots, cucumbers, celery, tomatoes, lettuce
  • Helps lower colon cancer
high fructose corn syrup
High Fructose Corn Syrup
  • Simple Sugar substitute
  • Correlation between HFCS consumption and obesity
  • Synthetically produced sugars
  • 2.6 billion $$/ year industry
  • Cheaper to produce than natural sugar
  • Calorie dense- more calories than sucrose increase calorie consumption
  • Altered in chemical structure
    • isomerized
dairy
Dairy
  • Has calcium BUT…..
  • High in saturated fat and cholesterol
    • 2nd to beef
  • One glass 2% is equivalent to 3 strips of bacon
  • Recombinant Bovine growth hormone (10-20% more milk)
    • Antibiotics
    • Insulin like growth factor
      • Carcinogen linked to colon & breast cancer
preccocial puberty
Preccocial Puberty
  • 6x more common in girls
  • Age of puberty onset earlier
    • Past- 10-11 yrs
    • Now 7-8 yrs
      • 3 yrs old not uncommon
vitamins
Vitamins
  • D= organic molecules required for bodies proper function
  • 13 essentials
  • Small amounts required
  • Necessary for proper function
  • Used to build enzymes
  • Examples
    • Thiamin (B1) nerve function
    • Riboflavin (B2) make atp (NAD+), vision, skin
    • Folic acid DNA, Cell division, RBC
    • Vit D Need to absorb Ca+
    • Vit K blood clotting
    • Vit C- collagen
minerals
Minerals
  • Chemical elements required for body function- inorganic
    • 21
  • Require small amounts for proper function
  • Example
    • Calcium
    • Iron
    • Sodium
      • 20X required
slide66
Iron
  • RDA
    • Men &Women (age 50 on) 8 mg
    • Adult (ages 19 to 50) 18 mg
  • Necessary for Oxygen transportation
iron deficiency anemia
Iron deficiency anemia
  • Iron deficiency anemia occurs when the body does not have enough iron
  • causes weakness, pale skin, and general tiredness
    • Not getting enough O2 to cells
  • caused by:
    • Bleeding from conditions such as ulcers, heavy menstrual periods, or cancer.
    • Poor absorption of iron by the body.
    • Lack of iron in the diet or not enough iron in the diet
calcium
Calcium
  • Bones & teeth
  • Muscle contraction
  • Blood clotting
  • Neural contractions
  • Sources
    • Milk & dairy
    • Dark leafy vegetables
      • Broccoli, spinach, kale, legumes, some nuts
vitamin supplements
Vitamin Supplements
  • Digestible?
  • Absorptable?
  • Usable?
  • Necessary?
to get the most benefit from your iron pills and the iron content of your food
To get the most benefit from your iron pills and the iron content of your food:
  • Take vitamin C (ascorbic acid) or drink orange juice with your pills.
  • Steam vegetables to help them retain their iron content.
  • Use iron pots for cooking.
  • Do not take your iron pills:
    • Within 2 hours of taking antacids or tetracycline (an antibiotic).
    • With certain foods, chemicals, and nutrients. These include:
      • Tea, coffee, chocolate, and other food or beverages high in caffeine.
      • Milk and other calcium-rich foods or supplements.
      • High-fiber foods, such as bran, whole grains, nuts, and raw green vegetables.
foods high in iron
Foods high in iron
  • The body can absorb up to 40% of the iron in these foods.
    • Meats More absorbable than other sources
      • liver 1 oz 4 mg Beef 3 oz 4 mg Lamb 4 oz 4 mg Chicken 3 oz 1.5 mg
      • Fruits, grains, and vegetables
  • The body can absorb 10% or less of the iron in these foods
    • Raisins, Peas, Beans, Figs, Barley, Oatmeal, Beans, green, rice
whole grains73
Bran.

outer seed coat

Niacin (b3), Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), magnesium, phosphorus, iron and zinc

fiber.

Germ

Plant embryo

B1, B2, B3, vitamin E, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and zinc

protein and some fat

Endosperm

bulk of the seed

Bulk of protein and carbohydrates

small amounts of vitamins and minerals

Whole Grains
whole grains vs refined grains74
Barley

Brown rice

Buckwheat

Bulgar

Millet

Oatmeal

Popcorn

Whole wheat bread or pasta or crackers

Wild rice

Corn flakes

Couscous

Enriched pasta

Grits

Pretzels

White bread

White rice

Whole grains vs refined grains
quick dirty take home
Quick & Dirty Take Home
  • Grains
    • Eat at least 3 ounces of whole-grain bread, cereal, crackers, rice, or pasta every day.
    • Look for "whole" before the grain name on the list of ingredients.
  • Vegetables
    • Eat more dark green vegetables.
    • Eat more orange vegetables.
    • Eat more dry beans and peas.
  • Fruits
    • Eat a variety of fruit.
    • Choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit.
    • Go easy on fruit juices.
  • Oils
    • Get most of your fat from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.
    • Limit solid fats like butter, stick margarine, shortening, and lard.
  • Milk
    • Go low fat or fat free.
    • If you don't or can't drink milk, choose lactose-free products or other calcium sources.
  • Meat & Beans
    • Choose low-fat or lean meats and poultry.
    • Bake it, broil it, or grill it.
  • Vary your choices -- with more fish, beans, peas, nuts, and seeds.
food guidelines
Food guidelines
  • http://www.webmd.com/content/article/100/105752.htm
slide77
http://www.themeatrix.com/
  • http://www.themeatrix2.com/