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    1. Nursing History Nursing Concepts

    2. "Connecting the past with the present allows us to catch a glimpse of the future." The Victoria General Hospital was first established in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1867. The hospital acquired a bad reputation and was thought to provide poor medical care. In 1887 the province assumed control of the hospital and attempted to transform the hospitals image as a place of poor medical care to a place of active and successful medicine. To assist in this transformation a nursing school was established in 1890, the first of its kind in Nova Scotia, with the objective of providing the hospital with a disciplined nursing staff who would adhere to standards of professionalism and cleanliness. http://forms.msvu.ca/library/archives/nhdp/schools/VGH.htm The Victoria General Hospital was first established in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1867. The hospital acquired a bad reputation and was thought to provide poor medical care. In 1887 the province assumed control of the hospital and attempted to transform the hospitals image as a place of poor medical care to a place of active and successful medicine. To assist in this transformation a nursing school was established in 1890, the first of its kind in Nova Scotia, with the objective of providing the hospital with a disciplined nursing staff who would adhere to standards of professionalism and cleanliness. http://forms.msvu.ca/library/archives/nhdp/schools/VGH.htm

    3. Job description: floor nurses 1887 In addition to caring for your 50 patients, each nurse will follow these regulations:

    4. Job description: floor nurses 1887 Daily sweep and mop the floors of your ward, dust the patient's furniture and window sills.

    5. Job description: floor nurses 1887 Maintain an even temperature in your ward by bringing in a scuttle of coal for the day's business.

    6. Job description: floor nurses 1887 Light is important to observe the patient's condition. Therefore, each day fill kerosene lamps, clean chimneys and trim wicks. Wash the windows once a week.

    7. Job description: floor nurses 1887 The nurse's notes are important in aiding the physician's work. Make your pens carefully; you may whittle nibs to your individual taste.

    8. Job description: floor nurses 1887 Each nurse on day duty will report every day at 7 a.m. and leave at 8 p.m. except on the Sabbath on which day you will be off from 12 noon to 2 p.m.

    9. Job description: floor nurses 1887 Graduate nurses in good standing with the director of nurses will be given an evening off each week for courting purposes or two evenings a week if you go regularly to church.

    10. Job description: floor nurses 1887 Each nurse should lay aside from each pay day a goodly sum of her earnings for her benefits during her declining years so that she will not become a burden. For example, if you earn $30 a month you should set aside $15.

    11. Job description: floor nurses 1887 Any nurse who smokes, uses liquor in any form, gets her hair done at a beauty shop, or frequents dance halls will give the director of nurses good reason to suspect her worth, intentions and integrity.

    12. Job description: floor nurses 1887 The nurse who performs her labors and serves her patients and doctors without fault for five years will be given an increase of five cents a day, providing there are no hospital debts outstanding

    13. Nursing a woman employed to suckle and/or generally care for a younger child Wet nurse Dry nurse Nourishing promoting quality of life. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://forms.msvu.ca/library/tutorial/nhdp/Images/IWK%2520images/IWK_P5.jpg&imgrefurl=http://forms.msvu.ca/library/tutorial/nhdp/schools/IWK.htm&usg=__D8R1hv8ZWQai4wbdzP-OxGIbpM4=&h=800&w=466&sz=73&hl=en&start=35&zoom=1&tbnid=pxCYMfZXajWiQM:&tbnh=153&tbnw=108&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dnursing%2Bhistory%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D596%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C883&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=477&ei=s5WaTIDDAYPevQPs-cDqBA&oei=LJWaTOu8G5OtOPeTpfIM&esq=4&page=3&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:35&tx=53&ty=50&biw=1280&bih=596 While the school's training provided extensive experience in childrens nursing, periods of affiliation with adult hospitals in the area were also provided and encouraged to give the students additional experience in adult nursing. The hospital was affiliated with Dalhousie University, and in 1966 the construction of the new Isaac Walton Killam Hospital for Children began. On June 10, 1971 the Curriculum council gave its approval to the request from the I.W.K. Hospital School for Nursing to reduce the program in nursing by two months for students graduating in 1971. This year also saw the last class to graduate, and after fifty five years the program was phased out. Most of the 801 students had a chance to finish their education in the Halifax Childrens Hospital, but 38 had the chance to finish in the new I.W.K. Children's Hospital. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://forms.msvu.ca/library/tutorial/nhdp/Images/IWK%2520images/IWK_P5.jpg&imgrefurl=http://forms.msvu.ca/library/tutorial/nhdp/schools/IWK.htm&usg=__D8R1hv8ZWQai4wbdzP-OxGIbpM4=&h=800&w=466&sz=73&hl=en&start=35&zoom=1&tbnid=pxCYMfZXajWiQM:&tbnh=153&tbnw=108&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dnursing%2Bhistory%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26biw%3D1280%26bih%3D596%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C883&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=477&ei=s5WaTIDDAYPevQPs-cDqBA&oei=LJWaTOu8G5OtOPeTpfIM&esq=4&page=3&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:35&tx=53&ty=50&biw=1280&bih=596 While the school's training provided extensive experience in childrens nursing, periods of affiliation with adult hospitals in the area were also provided and encouraged to give the students additional experience in adult nursing. The hospital was affiliated with Dalhousie University, and in 1966 the construction of the new Isaac Walton Killam Hospital for Children began. On June 10, 1971 the Curriculum council gave its approval to the request from the I.W.K. Hospital School for Nursing to reduce the program in nursing by two months for students graduating in 1971. This year also saw the last class to graduate, and after fifty five years the program was phased out. Most of the 801 students had a chance to finish their education in the Halifax Childrens Hospital, but 38 had the chance to finish in the new I.W.K. Children's Hospital.

    14. 17th century Prior to the foundation of modern nursing Nuns /monks Prostitutes (women who followed the army) Criminals Nursing care was provided by men and women serving punishment. It was often associated with prostitutes and other female criminals serving time. They had a reputation for being drunk and obnoxious, a view amplified by the doctors of the time to make themselves seem more important and able. Nursing care was provided by men and women serving punishment. It was often associated with prostitutes and other female criminals serving time. They had a reputation for being drunk and obnoxious, a view amplified by the doctors of the time to make themselves seem more important and able.

    15. Nursing The oldest of arts and the youngest of professions (Donahue,1996)

    16. Florence Nightingale "The Lady with the Lamp", Crimean War book Notes on Nursing Nursing ? respectable profession 1860 est school of nursing

    17. Theodore Fliedner 1853 Set up a hospital with nurses of a good nature Led to British Institute of Nursing Sisters In 1853 Theodore Fliedner set up a hospital where the nurses he employed had to be of good nature. Many people were impressed with this facility and because of it the British Institute of Nursing Sisters was set up heodor Fliedner (21 January 1800 - 4 October 1864) was a German Lutheran minister and founder of Lutheran deaconess training. He is commemorated as a renewer of society in the Calendar of Saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on October 4. In the Indies he became acquainted with the ancient church office of deacon while spending time among the Mennonites. In England he met with Elizabeth Fry, who demonstrated her work among her nation's impoverished and imprisoned people. He returned home not only with a large financial collection for his municipality but also with new ideas about social work among the disadvantaged. He began by working among inmates at the Dsseldorf Prison, preaching the Gospel and ministering to spiritual and physical needs. He walked to and from Dsseldorf every other Sunday until a regular prison chaplain was appointed. In 1826, he created the Rheinisch-Westfaeli Prison Company. To better support and teach Kaiserwerth's children, he founded a school in 1835 which became the venue for a women teachers' seminar. In many cities, there were no hospitals at that time. Following somewhat the model of the early Christian Church's diaconate, incorporating ideas learned from Fry and the Mennonites, and applying his own thoughts, Fliedner developed a plan whereby young women would find and care for the needy sick. For this, he needed to create an institute where the women could learn theology and nursing skills. He opened the hospital and deaconess training center in Kaiserswerth on 13 October 1836. Gertrud Reichardt was the first deaconess commissioned by the new school. One of the associated Kaiserwerth professional schools was later named in her honor. After his wife died in 1842, he found a new life companion (and important employee) in Karolina Bertheau. They opened institutes for the deaconate in 1844 in Dortmund and in 1847 in Berlin. Flieder's attention became completely focused on this aspect of the ministry and in 1849 he turned completely to working with the deaconate, including increasing activity abroad. Because of these efforts, deaconess institutes arose in Paris, Strasbourg, Utrecht, and elsewhere. By the time of his death in 1864, there were 30 motherhouses and 1600 deaconesses worldwide. By the middle of the 20th century, there were over 35,000 deaconesses serving in parishes, schools, hospitals, and prisons throughout the world. A sign of the international respect Fliedner garnered is that his most famous pupil came from outside Germany. Florence Nightingale, then a crusading English health care reformer, visited Kaiserwerth in 1846 and came away favorably impressed. She later returned for nursing studies and graduated in 1851. Today, one of Dsseldorf's hospitals bears her name. In 1853 Theodore Fliedner set up a hospital where the nurses he employed had to be of good nature. Many people were impressed with this facility and because of it the British Institute of Nursing Sisters was set up heodor Fliedner (21 January 1800 - 4 October 1864) was a German Lutheran minister and founder of Lutheran deaconess training. He is commemorated as a renewer of society in the Calendar of Saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on October 4. In the Indies he became acquainted with the ancient church office of deacon while spending time among the Mennonites. In England he met with Elizabeth Fry, who demonstrated her work among her nation's impoverished and imprisoned people. He returned home not only with a large financial collection for his municipality but also with new ideas about social work among the disadvantaged. He began by working among inmates at the Dsseldorf Prison, preaching the Gospel and ministering to spiritual and physical needs. He walked to and from Dsseldorf every other Sunday until a regular prison chaplain was appointed. In 1826, he created the Rheinisch-Westfaeli Prison Company. To better support and teach Kaiserwerth's children, he founded a school in 1835 which became the venue for a women teachers' seminar. In many cities, there were no hospitals at that time. Following somewhat the model of the early Christian Church's diaconate, incorporating ideas learned from Fry and the Mennonites, and applying his own thoughts, Fliedner developed a plan whereby young women would find and care for the needy sick. For this, he needed to create an institute where the women could learn theology and nursing skills. He opened the hospital and deaconess training center in Kaiserswerth on 13 October 1836. Gertrud Reichardt was the first deaconess commissioned by the new school. One of the associated Kaiserwerth professional schools was later named in her honor. After his wife died in 1842, he found a new life companion (and important employee) in Karolina Bertheau. They opened institutes for the deaconate in 1844 in Dortmund and in 1847 in Berlin. Flieder's attention became completely focused on this aspect of the ministry and in 1849 he turned completely to working with the deaconate, including increasing activity abroad. Because of these efforts, deaconess institutes arose in Paris, Strasbourg, Utrecht, and elsewhere. By the time of his death in 1864, there were 30 motherhouses and 1600 deaconesses worldwide. By the middle of the 20th century, there were over 35,000 deaconesses serving in parishes, schools, hospitals, and prisons throughout the world. A sign of the international respect Fliedner garnered is that his most famous pupil came from outside Germany. Florence Nightingale, then a crusading English health care reformer, visited Kaiserwerth in 1846 and came away favorably impressed. She later returned for nursing studies and graduated in 1851. Today, one of Dsseldorf's hospitals bears her name.

    18. James Derham 1757-1802 was the first African-American to formally practice medicine in the United States Derham was born into slavery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania By working as a nurse, he purchased his freedom by 1783. He opened a medical practice though he never received an M.D. degree. Was owned by several doctors by age 26 his annual earnings exceeded $3000 Dr. James Durham, born into slavery in 1762, buys his freedom and begins his own medical practice in New Orleans, becoming the first African-American doctor in the United States. As a youngster, he was owned by a number of doctors, who taught him how to read and write, mix medicines, and serve and work with patients. Durham had a flourishing medical practice in New Orleans until 1801 when the city restricted his practice because he did not have a formal medical degree. though he never received an M.D. degree. Was owned by several doctors by age 26 his annual earnings exceeded $3000 Dr. James Durham, born into slavery in 1762, buys his freedom and begins his own medical practice in New Orleans, becoming the first African-American doctor in the United States. As a youngster, he was owned by a number of doctors, who taught him how to read and write, mix medicines, and serve and work with patients. Durham had a flourishing medical practice in New Orleans until 1801 when the city restricted his practice because he did not have a formal medical degree.

    19. Mary Jane Seacole 1805 1881 Crimean War "a woman who succeeded despite the racial prejudice of influential sections of Victorian society". autobiography, Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands (1857),

    20. Clara Barton Civil War Nurse Organized the American Red Cross 1881

    21. Louisa May Alcott Author Little Women Civil War Nurse

    22. Linda Richards 1st professionally trained American nurse Est. nursing training programs USA Japan created 1st individual medical records system

    23. DOROTHEA DIX 1802 -1887 American activist for mentally ill homeless created 1st American mental asylums Superintendent of Army Nurses Civil war

    24. Ellen Dougherty 1844 to 1919, first Registered Nurse in the world 1st country to establish a nursing registry New Zealand 1901 New Zealand was the first country to regulate nurses nationally, with adoption of the Nurses Registration Act on the 12th of September, 1901. Ellen Dougherty was the first registered nurse. In 1901, New Zealand became the first country to pass legislation, the Nurses Registration Act, on the registration of nurses. Dougherty was then the first to be registered on January 10, 1902. She retired in 1908. New Zealand was the first country to regulate nurses nationally, with adoption of the Nurses Registration Act on the 12th of September, 1901. Ellen Dougherty was the first registered nurse. In 1901, New Zealand became the first country to pass legislation, the Nurses Registration Act, on the registration of nurses. Dougherty was then the first to be registered on January 10, 1902. She retired in 1908.

    25. Mary Eliza Mahoney 1st African American nurse graduate 1879 National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses Co-founded 1908. Mary Eliza Mahoney When Mary Eliza Mahoney graduated from nursing school in 1879, she would make history as the first graduate African American nurse. After deciding not to go into a career of domestic service (like many black women did at the time), she worked at the New England Hospital for Women and Children for many years before entering college. Mahoney graduated at the age of 34, becoming a graduate nurse and paving the way for other African American nurses in the future. Through her hard work she would provide the inspiration for the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses, which she helped co-found in 1908. Later in life Mahoney used her past experience to not only assist black women but all women in having educational and professional rights, further helping the status nursing has today. Mary Eliza Mahoney When Mary Eliza Mahoney graduated from nursing school in 1879, she would make history as the first graduate African American nurse. After deciding not to go into a career of domestic service (like many black women did at the time), she worked at the New England Hospital for Women and Children for many years before entering college. Mahoney graduated at the age of 34, becoming a graduate nurse and paving the way for other African American nurses in the future. Through her hard work she would provide the inspiration for the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses, which she helped co-found in 1908. Later in life Mahoney used her past experience to not only assist black women but all women in having educational and professional rights, further helping the status nursing has today.

    26. Unite States Nursing Registry 1st State to pass nursing licensure law North Carolina 1903 North Carolina was the first state in the United States to pass a nursing licensure law in 1903 North Carolina was the first state in the United States to pass a nursing licensure law in 1903

    27. The Nightingale 1886 - The Nightingale, the first American nursing journal, is published.

    28. The Nightingale Pledge 1893 composed by Lystra Gretter is first used by the graduating class (at the old Harper Hospital in Detroit, Michigan)

    29. The Nightingale Pledge I solemnly pledge myself before God and in the presence of this assembly, to pass my life in purity and to practice my profession faithfully.

    30. I will abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous, and will not take or knowingly administer any harmful drug.

    31. I will do all in my power to maintain and elevate the standard of my profession, and will hold in confidence all personal matters committed to my keeping and all family affairs coming to my knowledge in the practice of my calling.

    32. With loyalty will I endeavor to aid the physician, in his work, and devote myself to the welfare of those committed to my care.

    33. America Nurses Association 1st meeting 1897