history and evolution of nursing dr walaa nasr n.
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History and Evolution of Nursing Dr. walaa Nasr. Historical Overview. Nursing is an ancient profession that has evolved alongside human civilization. Religion heavily influenced this evolution. During the industrial revolution , scientific methods became more important.

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historical overview
Historical Overview
  • Nursing is an ancient profession that has evolved alongside human civilization.
  • Religion heavily influenced this evolution.
  • During the industrial revolution, scientific methods became more important.
florence nightingale
Florence Nightingale
  • The founder of modern nursing.
  • She established the first school for nurses that provided theory-based knowledge and clinical skill-building.
  • Encouraged the belief that there is a body of nursing knowledge distinct from medical knowledge.
nightingale s accomplishments
Nightingale’s Accomplishments
  • Demonstrated the value of nursing care in reducing morbidity rates in the Crimean War
  • Established the Nightingale School for Nurses at Thomas’ Hospital in London
  • Advocated the principles of cleanliness and nutrition in promoting health
  • Developed public awareness of the need for nurses.
the civil war nursing
The Civil War & Nursing
  • America’s tragic conflict underscored the need for nursing.
  • Clara Barton (1821-1912) volunteered her nursing skills and organized the Red Cross in the United States after the war.
pioneers of nursing
Pioneers of Nursing
  • Lillian Wald: First community health nurse.
  • Isabel Hampton Robb: Founded nursing organizations.
  • Adelaide Nutting: First nurse appointed as university professor.
  • Lavinia Dock: Author of early textbooks.
  • Mary Breckenridge: Serviced rural America.
  • Mamie Hale: Educator of midwives.
  • Linda Richards: America’s first trained nurse.
practical nursing
“Practical” Nursing
  • Women who cared for others, but who had no formal education, often called themselves “practical nurses.”
early practical nursing schools
Early Practical Nursing Schools
  • Ballard School. Opened in 1892 in New York City.
  • Thompson Practical Nursing School. Established 1907 in Brattleboro, Vermont. Still operating today.
  • Household Nursing School. Founded in 1918 in Boston.
nursing education changes
Nursing Education Changes
  • The Goldmark Report: Published in 1923, this report concluded that for nursing to be on an equal footing with other disciplines, nursing education should occur in the university setting.
nursing education lp vns
Nursing Education: LP/VNs
  • LPNs (Licensed Practical Nurses) and LVNs (Licensed Vocational Nurses) work under the supervision of an RN or other licensed provider such as a physician or dentist.
  • Education is focused on basic nursing skills and direct client care.
  • Educated in community colleges, hospitals, vocational programs.
nursing education rns
Nursing Education: RNs
  • RNs (Registered Nurses) may operate autonomously and may supervise LP/VNsLVNS.
  • Education is focused on basic nursing skills and direct client care.
  • Educated in universities, community colleges, hospitals.
diploma programs
Diploma Programs
  • Typically 3 years in length and offered by hospitals.
  • Graduates receive diploma rather than a college degree.
  • Program emphasizes basic skills particularly suited for hospital clients.
  • Such programs contribute 6% of nurse graduates.
associate degree programs
Associate Degree Programs
  • 2-year program offered through community colleges or as options at four-year universities.
  • Graduate receives Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN).
  • Program stresses basic skill preparation with clinical practice
  • Such programs contribute 60% of nurse graduates.
baccalaureate degree programs
Baccalaureate Degree Programs
  • Typically 4 years in length, offered through colleges and universities.
  • Graduate receives Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN)
  • Emphasizes preparation for practice in non- hospital settings, broader scientific content, and systematic problem-solving tools.
  • Such programs contribute 34% of all nursing graduates.
nursing organizations american nurses association ana
Nursing OrganizationsAmerican Nurses Association (ANA)
  • Purpose: To improve the quality of nursing care.
  • Established 1911.
  • Establishes standards for nursing practice.
  • Establishes a professional code of ethics.
  • Develops educational standards
  • Oversees a credentialing system.

For RNs only.

Publications: American Journal of Nursing; American Nurse

nursing organizations national association for practical nurse education and service inc napnes
Nursing OrganizationsNational Association for Practical Nurse Education and Service, Inc. (NAPNES)
  • Purpose: To improve the quality, education, and recognition of nursing schools and LP/VNs in the U.S.
  • Established 1941.
  • Provides workshops, seminars, and continuing-education programs.
  • Evaluates and certifies continuing-education programs of others.

For LPs/VNs.

Publications: Journal of Practical Nursing; NAPNES Forum.

nursing organizations national federation for nursing nfn
Nursing OrganizationsNational Federation for Nursing (NFN)
  • Purpose: To identify the nursing needs of society and to foster programs designed to meet these needs.
  • Established 1952.
  • Accredits nursing education programs.
  • Conducts surveys to collect data on education programs.
  • Provides continuing-education programs.

Open to all nurses and non-nurses.

Publication: Nursing & Health Care.