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Motivation and Emotion

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    1. Motivation and Emotion Dr. Arra Chapter 10

    2. Motivation and Emotion Motivation: the driving force behind behavior that leads us to pursue some things and avoid others. Motivation has two components: 1) what people want to do (goals) 2) how strongly they want to do it

    3. Perspectives on Motivation PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE Emphasizes the biological basis of motivation Freud believed that humans are motivated by drives; internal tension states that build up until they are satisfied Two basic drives: sex and aggression (control others and the environment)

    4. Perspectives on Motivation Other drives include the need for relatedness to others, and the need for self-esteem More recent psychodynamic psychologists have replaced drives with: 1) wishes a representation of a desired state that is associated with emotion or arousal 2) fears a representation of an undesired state that is associated with an unpleasant feeling

    5. Perspectives on Motivation Conscious vs. Unconscious Motivation Self-report/stated motives Motives revealed through projective tests short term vs. long term

    6. Perspectives on Motivation BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE Learning theorists recognize that the internal state of an organism influences reinforcement EX: reinforcers losing their power Behaviorists believe that motivation is a combination of ones drives (food, drink, sex) and reinforcement

    7. Perspectives on Motivation 2 types of drives: primary secondary

    8. Perspectives on Motivation COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE Expectancy-Value Theory: motivation as a joint function of the value people place on an outcome, and the extent to which they believe they can attain it i.e., we are driven to attain goals that matter a lot to us but also ones we believe we can accomplish

    9. Motivation Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation Can be expressed outside of conscious awareness Reinforcers

    10. Motivation Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Alternate approach/view of motivation Self-Actualization: not a deficiency need; rather growth needs; motives to expand and develop ones skill and abilities Maslow believed few people reach this level

    11. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

    12. Motivation Homeostasis bodys tendency to maintain a relatively constant state that permits cells to live and function Biological functions such as eating, drinking, and sleeping are regulated by homeostasis

    13. Homeostasis

    14. Emotions Emotion/affect: a positive or negative response that includes some combination of physiological arousal, cognitions, and behavior Components of emotion include: Cognitive: thoughts, beliefs and expectations Physiological: Internal physical changes related to arousal Behavioral: Outward signs of an emotional state

    15. Brain Control of Emotion Limbic system is involved in emotional states Includes the amygdala, hypothalamus Frontal lobes modulate emotions

    16. James-Lange vs. Cannon-Bard Emotion Theories James-Lange Theory: emotions originate in PNS responses that the CNS then interprets Peripheral Theory of Emotion EX: Seeing an angry bear We do not run because we are afraid; we become afraid (emotion) because we run (visceral response)

    17. James-Lange vs. Cannon-Bard Emotion Theories Cannons arguments against the theory: Visceral response are slower than emotions The same visceral responses are associated with many emotions (e.g. quickened heart rate: sexual arousal, fear, rage) Transection of the spinal cord does not impair emotion

    18. James-Lange vs. Cannon-Bard Emotion Theories Cannon-Bard Theory: Emotion-inducing stimuli simultaneously elicit both emotional experiences and bodily responses EX: seeing an angry bear Simultaneously become afraid and heart pounds

    19. Emotional Expression Emotional Expression: the overt behavioral signs of emotion EX: facial expressions, posture, gestures, tone of voice Basic Emotions: anger, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust Positive Affect: pleasant emotions Negative Affect: unpleasant emotions

    20. Facial Expressions There is an evolutionary link between the experience of emotion and facial expression of emotion: Darwin argued that this served to inform others of our emotional state Different facial expressions are associated with different emotions Ekmans research demonstrated that similar facial expressions are recognized across different cultures Blind and sighted children use the same emotional facial expressions

    21. Facial Expressions Facial-feedback hypothesis: facial expressions not only indicate a persons emotional state, they also influence the physiological and subjective components of the emotion EX: research study, ps hold face in a particular way, effects heart rate and skin temperature