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Monitoring strategies for wildlife in forests After a management strategy is chosen, then what? How can you tell if your wildlife goals are being met? Monitoring The collection of information to determine the occurrence, size, direction and importance

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Monitoring

strategies

for

wildlife

in

forests

slide2

After a management

strategy is chosen,

then what?

How can you tell

if your wildlife goals

are being met?

slide3

Monitoring

The collection of information to determine

the occurrence, size, direction and importance

of changes in attributes or indicators over time

slide4

Revise

management

plan

Reevaluate

objectives

and approach

Implementation

of plan and

alternatives

Analysis

and

interpretation

Monitoring

and collection

of data

slide5

Establishing a monitoring program

Step 1:

Establishing your monitoring goals

slide6

Implementation monitoring – Monitoring

to evaluate if the management activities

were instituted in the manner in which

they were proposed.

Effectiveness monitoring – Monitoring

to assess if the effects desired from

a particular management approach are

in fact being achieved.

Validation monitoring – Monitoring

to assess if the assumptions underlying

the management approach used sound.

slide7

A typical goal for wildlife monitoring:

To determine changes in the abundance

or demographics of wildlife populations

over time.

slide8

Establishing a monitoring program

Step 1:

Establishing your monitoring goals

Step 2:

Develop a monitoring strategy

slide9

3 Basic Strategies

(may be used separately or together)

Habitat-based monitoring

Monitoring surrogate species

Monitoring target species

slide10

Habitat-based monitoring

Monitoring to determine presence or

quality of habitat for a species or

group of species,

but that does not directly measure

response of any wildlife species.

slide11

Structure-based biodiversity indicators

(Lindenmeyer et al. 2000, Conservation Biology 14: 941-950)

Stand complexity

Connectivity

Landscape heterogeneity

An approach to monitor “ecological

sustainability in managed forests”

slide12

Structure-based biodiversity indicators

(Lindenmeyer et al. 2000, Conservation Biology 14: 941-950)

Strength:

Provides a measure of

conservation“coarse filter”

Weakness:

Does not measure response of

any wildlife species directly

slide13

Habitat-based monitoring

Key assumption:

The relationship between the

species of interest and the

monitored variable is so strong

that species response is predictable

given information about

the variable monitored.

slide14

Habitat-based monitoring

The concept of

necessary and sufficient

To use habitat-based monitoring,

the monitored habitat component

must be “necessary” for the

species, and “sufficient” to

predict the species presence

whenever the component is present

Potential application

Some cavity-nesting birds

slide15

Monitoring surrogate species

Surrogate species or group:

A species or group of species selected

for monitoring because information

about the abundance, viability,

or trends of that species or group

provides information about a different

or broader group of species, or about

other aspects of the ecology of

the system that are of interest.

“Indicator species” is often sometimes

synonymous with surrogate species

slide16

Monitoring surrogate species

Strength:

Simple and efficient

Weakness:

Often relationship between a

surrogate species and the species,

group, or attribute that it is

suppose to indicate is

weak or inadequately documented.

slide17

Monitoring target species

Target species or group:

A species or group of species

selected for monitoring because

information about the abundance,

viability, or trends of that species

or group is of direct interest because

of concerns pertaining specifically

to that species or group.

slide18

Monitoring target species

Strength:

Clear relationship between

monitoring data and

species of interest

Weaknesses:

Many species often of

interest

Can be expensive

slide19

Revise

management

plan

Reevaluate

objectives

and approach

Implementation

of plan and

alternatives

Analysis

and

interpretation

Monitoring

and collection

of data

slide20

Revise

management

plan

Reevaluate

objectives

and approach

Implementation

of plan and

alternatives

Analysis

and

interpretation

Monitoring

and collection

of data

slide21

Establishing a monitoring program

Step 1:

Establishing your monitoring goals

Step 2:

Develop a monitoring strategy

Step 3:

Develop a strategy for using data

slide22

Philosophy

  • It is critical to determine how the monitoring data
  • will be used BEFORE the data are collected.

How can monitoring data be used

to modify management plans?

  • If it can’t be determined how the data will be used,
  • they should not be collected.
slide23

Approaches to incorporating monitoring

in adaptive management

Triggers and thresholds – Points

established in adaptive management

where management activities are

altered in response to information

obtained; these triggers and

thresholds can be based on biological,

social, political, or other types of

information.

slide24

High

Change

Threshold

Moderate

Change

Threshold

Low

Change

Threshold

Current

Condition

Maximum

Minimum

Range of possible conditions

Triggers and Thresholds

slide25

Triggers and Thresholds

What constitutes meaningful thresholds?

Options

Absolute measure of some characteristic

Value of a characteristic relative to

reference site

Change in a characteristic relative to

pre-management conditions

Change in a characteristic relative to

change in a reference site

slide26

Triggers and Thresholds

  • Trigger values should take into account:
  • Conservation objectives
  • Need for precaution
  • Conservation sensitivity
  • Measurement sensitivity
  • Natural variability
slide27

High

Change

Threshold

Moderate

Change

Threshold

Low

Change

Threshold

Current

Condition

Maximum

Minimum

Range of possible conditions

Selection of trigger values

Example 1.

Low conservation priority

Low level of precaution

slide28

High

Change

Threshold

Moderate

Change

Threshold

Low

Change

Threshold

Current

Condition

Maximum

Minimum

Range of possible conditions

Selection of trigger values

Example 2.

High conservation priority

High level of precaution

slide29

Thomas Bayes

Bayesian Decision Theory

Information gathered

is combined with

previously gathered

information to determine

desired outcomes

slide30

Establishing a monitoring program

Step 1:

Establishing your monitoring goals

Step 2:

Develop a monitoring strategy

Step 3:

Develop a strategy for using data

Step 4:

Implement monitoring plan