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Integrated Pest Management & Certification Training Aquatic Weed Management. Richard D. Lee, Ph.D. IPM Specialist Bureau of Land Management. Aquatic Plants. In natural systems such as lakes and ponds, light to moderate growths of aquatic plants serve useful purposes:

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integrated pest management certification training aquatic weed management

Integrated Pest Management & Certification Training Aquatic Weed Management

Richard D. Lee, Ph.D.

IPM Specialist

Bureau of Land Management

aquatic plants
Aquatic Plants
  • In natural systems such as lakes and ponds, light to moderate growths of aquatic plants serve useful purposes:
    • Provide oxygen, food and cover for fish and other aquatic organisms, and may stabilize bottom sediment.
aquatic plants3
Aquatic Plants
  • In overabundance, many species become “weedy” as they crowd out desirable plants, adversely affecting other aquatic life and our ability to use the water:
    • Recreation
    • Creation of foul odors and discoloration
    • Fish kills
    • Blockage of water flow
aquatic weeds
Aquatic Weeds
  • My goal this morning is to provide you with the necessary background information to allow you to understand the procedure for developing an aquatic weed management plan.
classification of aquatic weeds
Classification of Aquatic Weeds
  • Two groups of aquatic plants:
    • 1. Algae - simple plants without roots, leaves or stems.
      • They reproduce by cell division, fragmentation, or by spore formation.
    • 2. Vascular plants - plants having roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.
      • There are four classes - submersed, free-floating, rooted floating, emerged plants.
aquatic weeds algae
Aquatic Weeds - Algae
  • Three types:
    • 1. Microscopic algae - single celled or colonial algae. Also referred to as “Phytoplankton” when suspended in water. During the daylight - give off oxygen, During night - remove oxygen.

If overabundant - fish kill due to oxygen removal from water - referred to as an “algal bloom” - the result of too much fertilizer in pond.

aquatic weeds algae8
Aquatic Weeds - Algae
  • Three types:
    • 1. Microscopic algae
    • 2. Filamentous algae - thread-like filaments that form mats on surface of the pond. As algae photosynthesize, oxygen gets trapped in the body causing them to rise to the surface as clumps. Examples: -Spirogyra - bright green and slimy - Cladophora - cotton mat algae, due to texture - Pitophora - horsehair coarse
aquatic weeds algae9
Aquatic Weeds - Algae
  • Three types:
    • 1. Microscopic
    • 2. Filamentous
    • 3. Chara - looks more like a plant with leaves needle-like and arranged in whorls along the “stem”. Musky odor and gritty surface due to calcium deposits. Also called “stonewort”
aquatic weeds vascular plants submersed plants
Aquatic Weeds - Vascular Plants – Submersed Plants
  • Four Groups:

1. Submersed plants - rooted to the bottom and completely submersed except for flowers which may extend above the water. Often referred to as “moss”.

Identification based upon:

* Leaf arrangement

* Leaf shape

aquatic weeds vascular plants
Aquatic Weeds - Vascular Plants
  • Submersed Plants - Alternate Leaves:
    • One leaf per node
    • PONDWEEDS - (Potamogeton sp.)
      • Curly Leaf Pondweed
      • Sago Pondweed
      • Leafy Pondweed
aquatic weeds vascular plants13
Aquatic Weeds - Vascular Plants
  • Submersed Plants - Opposite Leaves:
    • Two leaves per node
    • NAIADS (Najas sp.)
      • Southern naiad
      • Brittle naiad
aquatic weeds vascular plants14
Aquatic Weeds - Vascular Plants
  • Submersed Plants - Whorled Leaves:
    • Three or more leaves per node, arranged in a whorl.
    • Most serious submersed aquatic plants fit in this group.
    • Examples:
      • COONTAIL - Ceratophyllum demersum
      • AMERICAN ELODEA - Elodea canadensis
      • EURASIAN WATERMILFOIL - Myriophyllum spicatum There are other watermilfoils, including parrotfeather.
      • HYDRILLA - Hydrilla verticillata
got to know your weeds eurasian watermilfoil
Got to Know Your Weeds:Eurasian Watermilfoil
  • Eurasian Watermilfoil
    • Myriophyllum spicatum
    • Submerged, rooted perennial.
    • Grows in depths of up to 15 feet deep.
    • Forms dense mats.
got to know your weeds parrotfeather
Got to Know Your Weeds:Parrotfeather
  • Parrotfeather
    • Myriophyllum aquaticum
    • Submerged, rooted perennial.
    • Forms dense mats.
    • Whorled leaves.
got to know your weeds hydrilla
Got to Know Your Weeds:Hydrilla
  • Hydrilla
    • Hydrilla verticillata
    • Forms dense mats.
aquatic weeds vascular plants free floating
Aquatic Weeds - Vascular Plants – Free Floating
  • Four Groups:

1. Submersed plants

    • Free-floating Plants- these plants live unattached to the soil. There are roots, extend only in the water for nutrient uptake.

Majority of the plant is flattened or boat- shaped clusters of leaves with short segmented stems.

aquatic weeds vascular plants20
Aquatic Weeds - Vascular Plants
  • Free-floating Plants:
    • Examples:
      • DUCKWEED - (Lemna sp.) - 0.5” across, with 2 to 4 leaves.
      • WATERMEAL - (Spirodela sp.) - 1/16” diameter
      • GIANT SALVINIA – (Salvinia molesta)
      • WATER HYACINTH - (Eichhornia crassipes) - major aquatic weed of concern
got to know your weeds giant salvinia
Got to Know Your Weeds:Giant Salvinia
  • Giant Salvinia
    • Salvinia molesta
    • Native to South America
    • First found in U.S. in 1995 in South Carolina.
    • Now found in 24 watersheds in Texas, California, Arizona, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, & Florida.
    • Southern States most susceptible.
got to know your weeds giant salvinia22
Got to Know Your Weeds:Giant Salvinia
  • Giant Salvinia
    • Salvinia molesta
    • Forms dense mats.
got to know your weeds water hyacinth
Got to Know Your Weeds:Water Hyacinth
  • Water Hyacinth
    • Eichhornia crassipes
aquatic weeds vascular plants rooted floating
Aquatic Weeds - Vascular Plants – Rooted Floating
  • Four Groups:

1. Submersed plants

2. Free-floating Plants

3. Rooted Floating Plants- also referred to as “Emersed Weeds” on some labels.

Plants are rooted in the bottom sediments in shallow water. Leaves are floating or erect.

Plants identification by leaf shape and petiole attachment.

aquatic weeds vascular plants26
Aquatic Weeds - Vascular Plants
  • Rooted Floating Plants:
    • Center Attachment of Petiole
      • WATER LOTUS
      • WATERSHIELD
    • Cleft or Edge Petiole Attachment
      • WATER LILY
      • SPATTERDOCK
aquatic weeds vascular plants emergent plants
Aquatic Weeds - Vascular Plants – Emergent Plants
  • Four Groups:

1. Submersed Plants

2. Free-floating Plants

3. Rooted Floating Plants

4. Emergent Plants - Most of the plant is above the water surface.

Common Examples: Purple LoosestrifeSalt Cedar

aquatic weeds management
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Remembering our four step approach to weed management will assist in developing a management plan for aquatic weeds:
    • 1. Prevention
    • 2. Early Detection
    • 3. Timely Management
    • 4. Site Rehabilitation
aquatic weeds management31
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Prevention:
    • We need to be aware of the potential threat aquatic weeds have for our areas and learn to recognize those weeds of concern.
      • Giant Salvinia - is a problem in Texas and has the potential to make it into this area.
      • Purple Loosestrife - a serious problem in the Eastern portion of the U.S. and moving our way.
aquatic weeds management32
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • The key here - is we need to be looking at what is growing in our ditches and lakes.
aquatic weeds management33
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Early Detection:
  • Timely Management:
    • Biological
    • Mechanical
    • Cultural:
      • Proper construction – steep slopes – keep water moving
      • Draining/Drying – species dependent
    • Use of Herbicides
aquatic weeds management34
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Timely Management:
    • Biological - the use of living organisms to manage other living organisms. Limited options available.
      • Tilapia – plant eating fish
      • White Amur – plant eating fish, concerns regarding its environmental impact.

Mechanical -

      • Cutting, Mowing, Raking, Digging
aquatic weeds management35
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Herbicides Available:
    • Algae – Copper sulfate
    • Submersed – Diquat, Endothall, Fluridone, 2,4-D
    • Free Floating – Diquat,
    • Emersed – Glyphosate, Triclopyr
aquatic weeds management36
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Use of Herbicides - before using a herbicide, make sure you have answers for the following questions:
    • 1. What is the use of the treated water?
    • 2. Characteristics of the Environment
    • 3. Characteristics of the Water
    • 4. Characteristics of the Selected Herbicide
aquatic weeds management37
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Herbicides and Static Water:
    • Floating and emerged weeds are easy to manage.
    • Submerged weeds and algae not real difficult.
  • Herbicides and Flowing Water:
    • Floating and emerged weeds are still easy to manage.
    • Submerged weeds and algae can only be managed effectively through continuous application at a particular point to maintain a specified level of herbicide concentration - it’s not easy.
aquatic weeds management38
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Application of Aquatic Herbicides:
    • 1. Application equipment - is it in good working order.
    • 2. Determine area to be treated:

Aquatic Situation Determining Treated Area

------------------------------------------------------------------------

      • AlgaeWater Volume - acre -ft
      • Submersed PlantsWater Volume - acre-ft
      • Free-Floating Surface Area - acres
      • Rooted Floating Plants Surface Area - acres
      • Emergent Plants Surface Area - acres
aquatic weeds management39
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Application of Aquatic Herbicides - Pond:
    • Surface Area:
      • Free-floating, rooted-floating, and emerged weeds
      • Two dimensional - length X width
      • Rate of herbicide application based upon “amount/acre”
aquatic weeds management40
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Application of Aquatic Herbicides - Pond:
    • Water Volume:
      • Algae and submerged
      • Three dimensional - length X width X depth
      • Rate of herbicide application based upon “amount/acre-ft” or “ppm” (Parts per million). To convert “ppm” to “lbs. product required”
      • 2.7 X PPM wanted X acre-ft = lbs. Prod. Req.
aquatic weeds management41
Aquatic Weeds - Management
  • Application of Aquatic Herbicides - Canal/Moving:
    • Herbicide application depends upon:
      • Water Volume: Average width X Average depth = sq. ft.
      • Flow Speed: Distance water moves per unit of time = ft/sec
      • FLOW RATE: Water volume X Flow Speed = cubic feet/sec
aquatic weeds summary
Aquatic Weeds - Summary
  • 1. Different Types of Weeds:
    • Algae
    • Submersed Weeds
    • Free-floating Weeds
    • Rooted Floating Weeds
    • Emergent Weeds
  • 2. Management Plan Development