Management of Sows - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

benjamin
management of sows n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Management of Sows PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Management of Sows

play fullscreen
1 / 45
Download Presentation
Management of Sows
1290 Views
Download Presentation

Management of Sows

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Management of Sows

  2. Sow ManagementOutline 1. Management of gilts 2. Management of gestating sows 3. Management of lactating sows 4. Management from Weaning to breeding

  3. 1. Gilt Management

  4. 1.1 Number of gilts needed • Depends on sow culling rate • Usually around 20% first litter sows (18-25) • With 2.5 litters/sow/year: 50% gilts/year • On 600 sow farm: 300 gilts needed per year • If 75% of gilts are used: 400 gilts should be purchased or produced

  5. 1.2 Gilts in Isolation • Gilts in Isolation every 10 weeks • Age should be between 3 and 5 month • After 8 weeks: Move gilts to sow unit • Clean isolation between groups

  6. 1.3 Why have gilts in isolation • 1. Prevent disease introduction in herd • 2. Prepare gilts to enter farm • Vaccinations • Adaptation • 3. Control of health status • Bleeding

  7. 1.4 Feeding strategy for non-bred gilts • Feed ad lib until 70-80 kg • Use normal nursery/grower diet • Feed 75% of ad lib during rest of period • Use lactation diet or similar

  8. 1.5 Breeding the Gilts • Move gilts to breeding barn • Boar exposure • Feed ad libitum - add sex mixture • Move around • Spray with cold water 10 min/day • Breed in 2nd or 3rd estrus

  9. 2. Management of Gestating Sows

  10. 2. Gestation Management • 2.1. Feed and feed adjustments • 2.2. Reproductive checks • 2.3. Disease management • 2.4. Daily chores

  11. 2.1.1 Feeding gestating gilts and sows • 1: Day 1-21: Implantation • 2: Day 22-90: Body condition • 3: Day 91-112: Fetal growth • 4: Day 113-115: Prepare farrowing

  12. Day Gilts Normal sows Thin sows Fat sows 1-21 1.8 3.0 4.5 1.8 22-90 2.2 2.0 4.5 1.8 91-112 2.8 3.0 3.0 1.8 113-114 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.1.2 Feeding curves in gestation(kg/day, 3.0 - 3.2 Mcal/kg) Remember: Adjustments for temp. if lower than 20oC

  13. 2.1.3 Feed Adjustments • On a weekly basis, all sows are checked for body condition and moved to different curve if necessary • Use diets that meet the nutritional requirement of gestating sows and gilts • Table 14 in SD – NE Swine Nutrition Guide • If same diet used for gilts and sows, remember that gilts have higher aa requirements than sows.

  14. 2.1.4 Importance of right body condition Fat sows and gilts: • Diabetes • Difficulties farrowing their pigs • Reduced feed intake in lactation • Reduced milk yield in lactation • Shorter longevity

  15. 2.1.5 Water • Sows should have free access to water 24 h per day • Check water quality • Water from pump better than water from nipples • Give water several times per day

  16. 2.2. Reproductive Checks

  17. 2.2.1 Barn Management • Place sows after day of breeding • Keep breeding groups together • Move sows out if they return to heat • Use color scheme for each group

  18. 2.2.2 Reproduction Checkups • Check for heat every day • Concentrate on sows 3, 6,and 9 wks post breeding (same color) • Pregnancy check 4-5 wks post breeding • Ultra sound • Scanning

  19. 2.2.3 Efficiency of heat check • Important to spend all the time that is necessary for efficient heat check of gestating sows every day • The closer the average breeding to rebreeding interval is to 21 days, the better a job did you do heat checking gest. sows

  20. 2.3. Disease Management

  21. 2.3. Disease Management • Make sure vaccination program is followed • Many vaccinations 3 wks pre-partum • If diseases in farrowing unit, discuss medication of gestating sows with vet. • Look for urinary tract diseases in gest. unit • Keep high sanitation level in barn

  22. 2.4 Daily chores in gestation barn

  23. 2.4 Daily chores in gestation barn • Feeding • Check that all sows eat their ration • Check heat • Check for urinary tract diseases • Measure urinary pH • Check for other diseases and abnormalities • bad legs or feet

  24. 3. Management of Lactating Sows

  25. 3. Management of lactating sows • 3.1. Feeding • 3.2. Management around parturition • 3.3. Piglet management • 3.4 Daily chores

  26. 3.1.1 Objectives of feeding lactating sows • 1. High milk yield • More milk decreases preweaning mortality and increases weaning weight • 2. Prevent BW loss • Low weight loss improves the chances of the sow returning to heat right after weaning

  27. 3.1.2 Feeding strategy for lactating sows • Day 1-2: 2 kg per day • Day 3-4: 4 kg per day • Day 5- weaning: Ad Libitum (semi ad.lib) • Check sows 30 min. after feeding: • if feeder completely clean, give more feed next time • if feed left in feeder, give less feed next time • if crumples left in feeder, give same amount next time

  28. 3.1.3. How to get high feed intake • Make sure water is available all the time • Include fat in diet (Increases energy) • Barn temperature around 20oC • drip cooling if hot • Feed at least 2 times a day - 3 is better • Don’t let feed sit in feeder

  29. 3.1.4 Feed Ingredients for lactating sows • Same as for gestating sows. • Keep fiber levels relatively low • OK to use synthetic AA • Fish meal may be included • Include oil or fat • Don’t change ingredients from gestation to lactation

  30. 3.1.5 Nutrients in lactation diets • Table 14 in Swine Nutrition Guide • Nutrient requirement depend on milk yield and daily feed intake • If FI low, more concentrated diets are needed. • Vitamin fortification may need to be improved in high producing sows

  31. 3.1.6 Calculating the lysine need

  32. 3.1.7. Lysine concentration in diet Week 3: 74,1 g/day Conc. if eating 9 kg/day: 0,82 % Conc. If eating 6 kg/day: 1.24 %

  33. 3.2 Management Around Parturition

  34. 3.2.1 Management around parturitionObjectives • Avoid problems during parturition • Decrease number of still born pigs • Make sure live borns get colostrum and warm surrounding • Make sure sow is treated if she gets sick

  35. 3.2.2 General Points • Clean and disinfect barn • Low feed intake before and after • Plenty of water • Watch farrowings if possible • Assist sow in farrowing if needed

  36. 3.2.3. Inductions of Farrowings • Use prostaglandins or oxytocin • Induce no earlier than d 113 • sows will farrow 24-30 h later • Only induce sows that look ready to farrow • Otherwise too many small piglets

  37. 3.3. Piglet Management

  38. 3.3.1. Litter Standardization • Move pigs around 24-48 h post partum • Give all sows 10-12 pigs • Make nurse sows if too many piglets • use older sows weaned at 14 d for this • Move all small pigs into same litter • use 2nd parity sow for these pigs

  39. 3.4 Daily chores in farrowing barn

  40. 3.4.1 Daily sow check-ups • Feed sows • Check sows for discharges and diseases • Treat sows that need it • Check temperature, vent., drip cooling etc. • Look for cull sows

  41. 3.4.2 Daily pig check-ups • Get all pigs up and running around • Look for bad joints and diarrhea • Treat sick piglets • Remove pigs that are getting behind • Give milk replacer to litters with small pigs • Give creep feed after day 8

  42. 4. Management from Weaning to Breeding

  43. 4.1 Weaning • Wean sows Wednesdays or Thursdays • Move sows to breeding barn • Give sows direct boar contact • Box sows individually in breeding barn • Turn light on at least 14 h per d

  44. 4.2 Feeding • Feed ad libitum w. lactation diet • give sex mixture • Water freely available

  45. 4.3 Breeding • Start heat checking d. 5 post weaning • Breed at least twice with 24 h intervals • Use AI or natural breeding • If natural breeding: Hand breed