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ME381R Lecture 1 Overview of Microscale Thermal Fluid Sciences and Applications. Dr. Li Shi Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 www.me.utexas.edu/~lishi lishi@mail.utexas.edu. Microprocessor Evolution. Localized Heating in VLSI Chips.

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Ic thermal management challenge

ME381R Lecture 1

Overview of Microscale Thermal Fluid Sciences and Applications

Dr. Li Shi

Department of Mechanical Engineering

The University of Texas at Austin

Austin, TX 78712

www.me.utexas.edu/~lishi

lishi@mail.utexas.edu



Ic thermal management challenge

Localized Heating in VLSI Chips

DT=20C

Mean-time-to-failure due to electromigration increase x5

80C

90C

108C

Dependence of mean time between failure on temperature

110C

1 cm

On chip temperature contour

Steve Kang et al. Electrothermal analysis of VLSI Systems, Kluwer 2000


Ic thermal management challenge

Telecommunication Data Rate Evolution

1.00 GB Hard Drive

1.44MB Floppy Disk

Howard Banks, "Life at 100 billion bits per second", Forbes Magazine, Oct. 6, 1997


Ic thermal management challenge

Thermal Issues in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits

Affolter, WDM Solutions (supplement to Laser Focus World), P.65 June 2001, www.wdm-solutions.com

A. Shakouri, J. Christofferson, Z. Bian, and P. Kozodoy, “High Spatial Resolution Thermal Imaging of Multiple Section Semiconductor Lasers,” Proceeding of Photonic Devices and System Packaging Symposium (PhoPack 2002), pp22-25, July 2002, Stanford CA.


Ic thermal management challenge
IC Thermal Management Challenge

Courtesy: Prof. Ken Goodson, DARAPA Thermal Management Workshop




Thermoelectric refrigeration

Thermoelectric Refrigeration

  • Optoelectronics

  • Electronics

  • Consumer

  • Automobile

  • No moving parts: quiet

  • No CFC: clean

  • Low efficiency


Efficient thin film thermoelectric coolers venkatasubramanian et al nature 413 p 597 2001
Efficient Thin Film Thermoelectric CoolersVenkatasubramanian et al, Nature413, P. 597 (2001)

Thin film superlattice


Ic thermal management challenge

How far exponential growth in electronics and fiber optics can continue?

Airplane Speed- Past, Present, Future

McMasters & Cummings, Journal of Aircraft, Jan-Feb 2002

The brick wall due to heating, fabrication cost, quantum mechanics …

Future challenges & opportunities: transportation, communication, energy, health care …


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Direct Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion can continue?

  • Electric power generator with no moving part

  • Power sources for NASA space probe

  • NAVY Electric Ships (Seapower 21)

  • Waste heat recovery (cars, power plants, …)

  • Microscale power sources

Efficient Nanostructured Thermoelectric Power Generator

Spacecraft Power Source



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Length Scale can continue?

1 km

Aircraft

Automobile

1 m

Human

Computer

Butterfly

1 mm

Fourier’s law,

Novier-Stokes

Microprocessor Module

MEMS

Blood Cells

1 mm

Wavelength of Visible Light

Particle transport theories,

molecular dynamics…

l

Microprocessor, NEMS

100 nm

Nanotubes, Nanowires

1 nm

Width of DNA


Thermal conductivity

Fourier’s Law for Heat Conduction can continue?

Thermal conductivity

Q (heat flow)

Hot

Th

Cold

Tc

L


Ic thermal management challenge

Microscopic Origins of Thermal Fluid Transport can continue?

--The Particle Nature

MaterialsDominant energy carriers

Gases: Molecules

Metals: Electrons

Insulators: Phonons

(crystal vibration)

L

Hot

Cold

In micro-nano scale thermal fluid systems, often L < mean free path of collision of energy carriers & Fourier’s law breaks down

 Particle transport theories or molecular dynamics methods