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International Workshop on New Photo-Detectors (PD07) @ Kobe University. Geiger-mode APD as a RICH Photodetector. Toru Iijima Nagoya University. June 28, 2007. Collaborators. Koji Hara, Toru Iijima, Yuri Mazuka, Mio Yamaoka Department of Physics, Nagoya University

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collaborators
Collaborators

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

Koji Hara, Toru Iijima, Yuri Mazuka, Mio Yamaoka

Department of Physics, Nagoya University

Rok Dolenec, Samo Korpar, Peter Krizan, Rok Petotnik, Andrej Petelin

Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana

Special Thanks to;

Belle-ACC group, KEKDTP RD-photon group

Hamamatsu Photonics, Yuri Kudenko

talk outline
Talk Outline
  • RICH w/ Aerogel radiators
  • Why Geiger-mode APD for RICH ?
  • Characterization of G-APD
  • Light collection system
  • Expected performance
  • Summary/Prospect

Can we use Geiger-mode APD (SiPM / MPPC)

as a RICH photosensor ?

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

proximity focusing aerogel rich
Proximity Focusing Aerogel RICH
  • Aerogel radiator (n~1.05, ~2cm) + photodetector (Dx ~ 5mm)
  • >4s K/p for 0.7 < p < 4.5 GeV/c
  • Proximity focusing geometry
    • No mirror complex.
    • Suitable for collider and space experiments.
  • Rayleigh scattering dominates in aerogel.

 Demand for positioning of a single photon in the visible wave length region.

Design values for Belle upgrade

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

belle pid upgrade option
Belle PID Upgrade Option
  • Barrel  TOP (Time-Of-Propagation) Counter
  • Endcap  Proximity Focusing Aerogel-RICH

Barrel PID  TOP

Endcap-PID

 Aerogel-RICH

Talk by K.Inami

  • Photodetector options
  • HAPD (baseline)
    • Poster by I.Adachi
  • MCP-PMT
    • Talk by S.Korpar
  • G-APD

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

rich with multiple radiators
RICH with Multiple Radiators

NIM A548(2005)383

  • Demonstration of principle
    • 4×4 array of H8500 (85% effective area)

sc=22.1mradNpe=10.7

Conventional

4cm thick aerogel

n=1.047

sc=14.4mradNpe=9.6

Multiple Radiators

2 layers of 2cm thick

n1=1.047, n2=1.057

p/K separation with focusing configuration ~ 4.8s @4GeV/c

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

rich with precision timing
RICH with Precision Timing

Fast photon detector enables Aerogal RICH to have TOF info.

photosensor

@ 4GeV/c

In case of Belle…

Cherenkov lights from aerogel

aerogel

DTring(p/K) ~37ps

p/K 4GeV

DTwindow(p/K) ~47ps

IP

1.8m

0.2m

Beam test result

w/ Burle 85011-501

p/K separation w/ TOF

Positive ID of K/p below thereshold.

swindow = 34 ps

w/ glass hit

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

why sipm mppc for rich
Why SiPM/MPPC for RICH ?
  • Cons.
  • Noize
  • Size
  • Rad. hardness ?
  • Pros.
  • High PDE
  • B field immunity

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

Comparison to other photodetctors

possibility of g apd for rich
Possibility of G-APD for RICH

To improve S/N …

  • Increase the number of signal hits/sensor by using light collectors (with optimization of pad size to the ring thickness).
  • Reduce the noise by a narrow time window (<10ns).

Light collector serves as a light emitter for TOF measurement.

SiPM / MPPC + Optics (Light-guide. Lens…)

Light collector

□3~5mm (IN)

□1-2mm(OUT)

Cherenkov Photons

(17deg max. for n=1.05)

Aerogel-RICH

n1

n2

G-APD

□1~3mm

g apd characterization
G-APD Characterization

New

Old

Measured Items

  • Photon-counting performance
  • Timing property
    • Use of timing for random noise rejection
    • + also for TOF measurement
  • Photo-Detection Efficiency
    • As a function of l
  • Noise Performance

20mm

We report basic performance using

1 x 1 mm2 samples

Measured samples

MPPC from HPK

MRS-APD (CPTA)

1710 series

1.1mm2

556 pixels.

+

SiPM (MePhI/PULSAR)

1710 series

1.1mm2

556 pixels.

performance photon counting
Performance: Photon-counting

H100-old, Vbias=71.5V, noise~1.0MHz

meanped: 98.9mean1pe: 137.1sped: 3.0

H100-old.

Pulse laser

HPK PLP-02 (410nm)

ALS PiL063 (636nm)

  • Excellent resolution to separate 0 and 1 photon (and more).
    • Gain = 1.8 x 106 at Vbias=71.5V
    • S/N = Dmean/s = 12
performance pde

Light dielding box

Quantum efficiency

Geometrical efficiency

Geiger efficiency

xy-stage

Performance: PDE

filter

A

Ref. PD

A

Geiger mode APD

pin holef200mm

Photo

spectrometer

45% at peak (460nm)

P.D.E. (%)

  • Higher efficiency at peak and long wave length, compared to conventional PMT’s.
  • Our result is consistent with HPK.
  • Need confirmation by photo-counting to disentangle the effects of cross talks and after-pulses.

Photo Detection Efficiency

performance gain vs noise

Noise (kHz)

Gain (x 103)

Performance: Gain vs Noise

100 pixel

400 pixel

2007/1/16

Recent HPK products have much lower noise rate

< 1/3 at the same gain.

performance time resolution
Performance: Time Resolution

Sample MPPC

Bias -71.5V

Threshold 0.5pe

Only Single photon data

Measured w/ pulse laser

636 / 410nm

MPPC

(HPK)

636nm

410nm

s~110ps

s~103ps

Time walk

corrected.

MRS-APD

s~140ps

s~70ps

Depend on internal structure ?

Can be used for TOF measurement as well.

time resolution mrs apd
Time resolution(MRS-APD)

Single photon, threshold ~0.4pe

l=635nm

l= 405nm

long tail(~4ns)

Short tail(~0.5ns)

s~69ps

s~142ps

43.0

39.5

40.0

40.5

41.0

41.5

41.5

42.0

42.5

43.5

TDC(ns)

TDC(ns)

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

setup for surface scan
Setup for Surface Scan

@ Jozef Stefan Inst.

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

sipm surface sensitivity
SiPM surface sensitivity

Size: ~1mm

Scanned with laser, resolution ~5 mm

Single photon response

SiPM (MePHY/Pulsar)

MRS APD by CPTA (Moscow)

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

micro structure
Micro Structure

SiPM (MePHY/Pulsar)

MRS APD by CPTA (Moscow)

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

hamamatsu m ppc s
Hamamatsu MPPCs

400 pixels

100 pixels

1mm

light guide
Light Guide
  • Possible design
    • Trapezoid
    • Winston Cone
    • Lens

Ex.) Trapezoid, incident at 0.3rad (max. in case of Super-B)

□5mm  □1mm

□5mm  □2mm

CE=95%

CE=37%

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

light guide21

Simulation conditions

  • Incident angle = 0.3rad
  • Wave length = 400nm
  • No internal absorption
  • n=1.47 acryl ic material
Light Guide
  • Trapezoid
  • Lens (half-sphere) +Trapezoid

length

5mm

5mm

2mm

length

2mm

L>12mm to obtain max. eff.

L>9mm to obtain max. eff.

light guide 2
Light Guide (2)

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

expected rich performance

2mm

5mm

Expected RICH Performance

Arbitrary

The simulation is adjusted to reproduce beam test results with multi-anode PMT.

Should be corrected for cross talk / after-pulse contribution

(because PDE based DC current measurement is used here).

A photosensor based on Light-guide + Geiger-mode APD can give x 4 Npe (number of detected photons).

effect of noise
Effect of Noise

Kaon ID efficiency at 1% pion mis-ID probability

0.8%

0.8%

1.6%

1.6%

3.2%

3.2%

Pad size = 4mm2

Momentum = 4 GeV/c

Pad size (mm2)

Momentum (GeV/c)

Noise rate (HPK-100) = 200KHz/mm2 @ 106 gain.

0.8MHz for 4mm2 pad and 10ns time window

Random background embeded in a simulation.

Assume Npe = 20 / ring (conservatively)

summary
Summary
  • Geiger-mode APD is very attractive device as a photosensor for a RICH with aerogel radiator.
    • High PDE  Significant increase in Npe (x 4 possible).
    • Good time resolution (s~100ps /p.e.)  RICH w/ TOF
    • Free from magnetic field  Large advantage !
  • Noise rate has been reduced significantly and in a tolerable region (<1MHz/pad) for recent products from HPK .

 Very encouraging !

  • Light colletction based on tapered lightguide (+lens) will be useful to increase the detection area, and hence improve S/N.
  • Devices with larger size (□3~5mm) are highly welcome.

We are starting to measure □3mm sample from HPK.

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

backup
Backup

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

light absorption in silicon

g

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

h

h

h

h

h

h

n+

p+

p-

g

Light absorption in silicon

Electric field in SiPM

Light absorption length a = f (l)

This is plot of SiPM, not MRS-APDreference: ICFA Instrum.Bull.23:28-41,2001

Red(l=635nm): absorbed in Geiger region→make prompt signals absorbed in drift region→make slow signals, long tail

Blue(l=405nm) : absorbed before reach to Geiger region→TDC has short tail, worse resolution in Geiger region

(mm)

Toru Iijima, PD07 @ Kobe

temperature dep of noise
Temperature Dep. of Noise
  • 0℃では室温の20~30%になった

MRS-APD MPPC

~300kHz@ 0℃ ~200kHz  @ 0℃

MRS-APD

MPPC

Geiger mode APDが並んでいる

青リング チェレンコフリング

赤 チェレンコフ光による信号

緑 ノイズによる信号

(deg.)

slide30
Plan

Photo from the talk by Sato-san (HPK) at the photosensor WS (Dec.7-8,2006).

  • Further measurements of samples
    • HPK starts to provide 3x3mm2 samples.
    • Better understanding of critical properties.
    • Feedback to producers.
  • Light-guide design
    • Measurements with a test sample.
  • Method to produce the assembly.
    • How to make the light-guide (LG) array.
    • Optical connection between LG and SiPM/MPPC.
  • Readout Electronics