Dependency Theory. Towards a Critique of Developmentalist: Dependency Theory. 1960s-- United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America. Main Authors: Fernando H. Cardoso, Faletto, Theotonio Dos Santos.
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Developmentalist approaches are wrong. The expansion of the market does not necessarily produce either modernization or development.On the contrary, capitalism makes societies look like “feudal” in the periphery.
Development and underdevelopment constitute the two sides of the same coin: capitalism.The periphery is underdeveloped because of the development of the center.
The play between Center and Periphery reproduces in all scales (fractal structure)CenterPeripheryCenter-Periphery Center-Periphery Center-Periphery-Center-PeripheryCenter-PeripheryCenter-Periphery
Unequal and Combined Development:
Center (Ex: England, the U.S.)
The State and the Nation split apart
SOCIAL EXCLUSION (POVERTY)
Against Rostow, Huntington, Moore, and... Marx, Cardoso and Faletto argue that...
Modernization, Industrialization, Urbanization, to Development do not lead in the periphery. Instead, they foster Underdevelopment, a “caricature” of the central societies.
Democracies, extended citizenship, and the rule of law, which PREVAIL in the Center
Free market + Democracy
(economic and social exclusion fosters)
Dictatorships (or Formal Democracies), State violence, limited citizenship, and the (un)rule of law, which PREVAIL in the Periphery.
the State + Corporations
Free market + RepressionPolitically...
Importance of politics.
C & F: “the political struggle revolving around the state shows what is essential in this form of dependency: the style of development of the possibility of alternatives depends upon the resolution of this question of the state.”
Single division of labor within a system which “has no overarching political structure.”
World-market, multiplicity of nation-states. Capitalism. No limits to profit. Starvation may be necessary for profit. Appearance of “the poor.”