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Absolutism

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    1. Absolutism Essential Questions: How did absolute monarchs centralize power in government and thereby control the religion, culture and economics of Europe?

    2. Absolutism Time: 16th through the 18th centuries Place: Western Europe and Russia What: Many rulers used divine right to claim rule over their empire(s). How: most rulers during this time reigned under an absolute monarchy. That is, these rulers were involved in every part of their government/economics/culture/religion.

    3. Spanish Absolutism Starts with Charles I A Hapsburg King Also rules the Holy Roman Empire, Netherlands , and America Conquests by Cortes and Pissaro Spain gains immense power and influence

    4. Phillip II of Spain Ruler of Spain during their golden years. Don Quixote is written El Greco Spain becomes the most powerful nation during his reign (1556-1598)

    6. Government tactics Expanded Spanish armada to over 150 ships Battle of Lepanto (1571) Fought in several wars Spanish Armada defeat Appointed family to Royal jobs Created a new royal palace (1584)

    7. Spanish Inquisition Part of the Counter-Reformation Attacks Protestants, Muslims, Jews and Homosexuals About 87,000 cases recorded Continues until 1834

    8. Economy under Philip II Used money from exploration to pay for most of his programs Command Economy Extreme spending Debt of 36 million ducats Inflation and debt causes a decline in power and wealth

    9. France and Absolutism France emerged after Spain as the next great power of absolutism. Started over conflict. Huguenots versus Catholics Henry IV offered the Edict of Nantes Created Religious tolerance towards Huguenots The main absolutist in France was Louis XIV.

    10. King Louis XIV: Sun King King of France from 1661-1715 I am the State Strengthened royal power immensely Built Versailles to keep the Estates General (Congress) happy and out of his way.

    11. Versailles

    12. Versailles Gardens

    13. Versailles Mall

    14. Versailles Gardens

    15. Versailles Gardens

    16. Versailles Gardens

    17. Hall of Mirrors

    18. Louis Chapel

    19. Louis XIV Foreign Policy Fought several wars, including the War of Spanish Succession and others against England and the Netherlands Franco-Ottoman Alliance Had the largest army in Europe at 300,000 soldiers

    20. Religion under Louis XIV Persecuted the Huguenots Repealed the Edict of Nantes in 1685 More than 200,000 fled Why is this a bad move for Louis?

    21. Economics under Louis Mercantilism Export more than a country imports Taxes and tolls Over 100 tolls within France Placed high Tariffs on imported goods Huge taxes on the middle class Cost of Versailles: 10% of total income to maintain

    44. What are the benefits of Absolutism? Who benefits? What are the problems with Absolutism?

    45. A Breach to absolutism Englands Parliament held much power. Queen Elizabeth was able to coerce parliament on many issues Charles I- acted as a complete absolutist monarch Refused to sign the Petition of Right Jailed civilians Led troops into the House of Commons to arrest

    46. A breach to Absolutism The English Civil War. Cavaliers (supporters of Charles I) Roundheads (led by Oliver Cromwell) Charles I is executed The Commonwealth. A republic led by Cromwell Puritan laws and power

    47. The Glorious Revolution Charles II Constitutional monarchy English Bill of Rights Habeas Corpus

    48. Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe The Thirty Years War Prussia Russia Peter the Great Search for a warm water port Petersburg Westernization of Russia