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SW Project Management Project Charter and Plan. INFO 420 Glenn Booker. Digging deeper. So far we’ve looked at projects from a fairly high level or strategic perspective The business case provided a high level justification of the project

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digging deeper
Digging deeper
  • So far we’ve looked at projects from a fairly high level or strategic perspective
    • The business case provided a high level justification of the project
  • Now it’s time to focus on a single project in more detail, and start fleshing out the details needed to make it a reality

Chapter 3

project charter and plan
Project charter and plan
  • The second phase of the project life cycle develops the project charter and baseline project plan
    • These are the foundation for guiding the project through its implementation
    • A major role is to define subplans that, together, will achieve the project’s goals

Chapter 3

subplans
Subplans
  • Subplans help manage specific aspects of the overall project
    • Scope, schedule, budget, quality, risk, and people could each be the basis for a subplan
    • Combined with the project’s methodology, processes, and tools, they define the project’s infrastructure and framework

Chapter 3

project planning overview
Project planning overview
  • Much of the course will focus on the details of these various subplans
  • For now, introduce the project planning process and how it connects to the PMBOK
    • And we’ll link the MOV to the project’s scope, budget, and schedule

Chapter 3

project planning overview1
Project planning overview
  • Ultimately the project plan will answer the basic concerns
    • Who is involved in the project?
    • How much will it cost?
    • How long will it take?
    • What will the finished product be able to do?

Chapter 3

project processes
Project processes
  • A process is a set of activities to achieve a particular purpose
    • Just like a kitchen recipe, or a programming algorithm
  • A project uses two types of processes
    • Project management processes
    • Product-oriented processes

Chapter 3

project processes1
Project processes
  • Project management processes help run the project
    • Initiation, execution, closing, managing, etc.
  • Product-oriented processes are those that actually create the system or product
    • System development life cycle (SDLC) processes mostly fit in this category
  • You need both kinds of processes!

Chapter 3

pm process groups
The five project management process groups in the PMBOK define a project by the kinds of work to be done

They often overlap different project phases

They are:

Initiating

Planning

Executing

Monitoring and Controlling

Closing

PM process groups

Chapter 3

initiating process group
Initiating process group
  • Processes typically include
    • Developing a business case
    • Initializing a project
    • Getting approval of the business case
    • Preparation of the project charter

Chapter 3

planning process group
Planning process group
  • Processes typically include
    • Planning of individual phases within a project, as well as planning the overall project
    • Planning project scope, activities, resources, costs, schedule, and procurement
    • Scope of processes should be consistent with the size of the project
    • Includes updating plans during the project

Chapter 3

executing process group
Executing process group
  • Processes typically include
    • Matching people and resources to carry out the plans
    • Develop the system (software engineering processes, testing, etc.)
    • QA, risk management, and team development

Chapter 3

monitoring and controlling process group
Monitoring and Controlling process group
  • Processes typically include
    • Balancing project scope, schedule, budget, and quality objectives
    • Monitor variances between planned & actuals
    • Take corrective action when needed
    • Scope, change, schedule, cost, & quality control processes; and communications plan

Chapter 3

closing process group
Closing process group
  • Processes typically include
    • Getting customer approval for final deliverables
    • Contract closure
    • Administrative closure
    • Evaluate project against its MOV
    • Document lessons learned

Chapter 3

project integration management
Project integration management
  • Project integration management (PIM) coordinates the other eight knowledge areas throughout a project life cycle
    • Includes deciding where to concentrate resources day to day
    • Proactive risk management
    • Coordinating work, and making tradeoffs among competing needs

Chapter 3

project integration management1
Project integration management
  • In many ways, PIM is a key role of the project manager
    • How do you keep the project on track in spite of personnel issues, resource issues, technical problems, etc.?
  • Understanding PIM processes is key to producing a good project plan

Chapter 3

pim processes
PIM processes
  • Define the project charter
    • Gives the project manager authority to allocate resources
  • Develop the preliminary scope statement
    • This is part of the business case – the broad scope of what is and isn’t part of the system
  • Develop project management plan

Chapter 3

pim processes1
PIM processes
    • The subplans mentioned earlier need to be integrated within the overall PMP
  • Direct and manage project execution
    • The project manager integrates all the processes into one coherent project. Hopefully.
  • Monitor and control project work
    • Critical are corrective actions when project strays from the plan

Chapter 3

pim processes2
PIM processes
    • Preventative actions can be a good part of risk management
    • Defect repair and rework are needed to maintain quality
  • Integrated change control
    • Changes to the system need to be documented, reviewed, and approved

Chapter 3

pim processes3
PIM processes
    • Need to ensure all affected parties are aware of changes before approval is given
  • Close the project
    • This could include premature closure of the project, if needed
    • In any event, closure should be orderly

Chapter 3

project management culture
Project management culture
  • Some organizations beg for trouble by pretending that project management isn’t really useful
  • To help instill a sense of the overall project management approach, follow these six principles

Chapter 3

project management culture1
Project management culture
  • Define the job in detail – know the scope and boundaries precisely
  • Get the right people involved
  • Estimate time and costs, including allowances for risks and scope assumptions

Chapter 3

project management culture2
Project management culture
  • Break the job down into a SOW
    • The SOW is a contract of project objectives
  • Establish and follow a change procedure
  • Agree on acceptance criteria – when are you done with each deliverable?

Chapter 3

project sponsor
Project sponsor
  • The project sponsor is a critical role for the success of any project
  • It’s someone outside the development team who is not only paying for the project, but also acts as a champion to support the project and protect it from outside threats

Chapter 3

project sponsor1
Project sponsor
  • The sponsor:
    • Empowers the project manager
    • Maintains project support (“buy-in”) from other key stakeholders
    • Clears political and organizational roadblocks
    • Ensures availability of resources
    • Monitors project status and progress

Chapter 3

project sponsor2
Project sponsor
    • Approves plans, schedules, budgets, and deliverables
    • Keeps the project focused on the goal
  • Since the sponsor is outside the development team, the project manager doesn’t control them
  • Loss of a sponsor can kill a project

Chapter 3

project charter
Project charter
  • The project charter is a high level agreement between the project sponsor and the project team
    • Documents the MOV, which may have been refined since the business case
    • Define project infrastructure
      • What resources, technology, methods, and PM processes will support the project?

Chapter 3

project charter1
Project charter
    • Identify key personnel, facilities and tools
  • Summarize the project plan
    • Scope, schedule, budget, and quality objectives
    • Deliverables, major milestones
  • Define roles and responsibilities
    • Identify project sponsor, manager, key leads, and how they will communicate and make decisions

Chapter 3

project charter2
Project charter
  • Express commitment to the project
    • Describe the resources committed to the project
    • Who will take ownership of the final product?
  • Define project control mechanisms
    • What processes will be followed for requesting, reviewing, and approving changes to project scope, cost, or schedule?

Chapter 3

charter contents
Charter contents
  • A charter typically can contain:
    • Project identification, such as the name or acronym or logo by which it’s known
      • Critical for your team coffee mugs
    • Project stakeholders
      • Who are they?
      • What roles do they play?
      • Who reports to whom?

Chapter 3

charter contents1
Charter contents
  • Project description
    • Give a nice overview of the project, for someone who’s never heard of it
    • Might include the project’s vision or overall goals
  • Measurable organizational value
    • Yes, it’s important enough to get its own section
  • Project scope
    • Could be a formal SOW, or less formal narrative

Chapter 3

charter contents2
Charter contents
    • The project scope is less detailed than the project plan, but outlines the major features of the project, and what is not part of the project scope
  • Project schedule – at a high level, such as major phases and overall duration
  • Project budget – at least the totals
  • Quality issues, such as the standards to be followed, or other overall quality objectives

Chapter 3

charter contents3
Charter contents
  • Resources – who is providing people, technology, facilities, etc. to support the project
    • You don’t want an office in your daughter’s dorm room…
  • Assumptions and risks
    • Key people availability
    • Events that could change project scope, budget, or duration

Chapter 3

charter contents4
Charter contents
    • External constraints on the project, e.g. project interfaces to existing systems
    • Internal constraints, such as resource competition
    • Project impact on other parts of the organization
    • Environmental, political, economic, or other issues
  • Project administration
    • What plans will be developed to support this project? Scope mgmt, communications, quality mgmt, quality mgmt, change mgmt, HR, etc.

Chapter 3

charter contents5
Charter contents
  • Acceptance and approval
    • Who signs off on this puppy?
  • References
  • Terminology
    • Particularly helpful if the project scope spans many technical specialties, who don’t know each others’ acronyms and phrases

Chapter 3

project planning framework
Project planning framework
  • Now that the overall picture of the project has been defined (its charter), the detailed planning process can begin
  • The project planning framework describes the planning process
  • We start with the MOV

Chapter 3

project planning framework1
Project planning framework
  • The project plan seeks to answer our pet perennial management questions
    • What needs to be done?
    • Who will do it?
    • When will they do it?
    • How long will it take?
    • How much will it cost?

Chapter 3

project planning framework2

MOV

Scope

}

Phases

Sequence

Schedule

Resources

Tasks

Budget

Time estimates

Project planning framework

Adapted from Fig 3.4 of text

Chapter 3

slide39
MOV
  • We start with the MOV, which hopefully was agreed upon by all key stakeholders
    • The MOV also connects to your organization’s strategic goals and mission, so making the project happy will also support your organization

Chapter 3

define the project s scope
Define the project’s scope
  • Now we need to establish what the scope of the project really is
    • What features will be implemented?
      • Might help to look at broad categories of features (manufacturing, sales, HR management, etc.) then get more detailed in each category
    • What systems are/are not being replaced?
    • What job roles will be affected?

Chapter 3

define the project s scope1
Define the project’s scope
  • The planning stage of this defines the scope in a requirements document, or SOW, or use cases, or … something
  • Then the definition stage groups the scope into work packages, each with a set of related features (both in functionality and priority)

Chapter 3

define the project s scope2
Define the project’s scope
  • Then verification must occur to make sure the MOV will be satisfied by the chosen scope
  • The change control process is critical to manage adjustments to the scope

Chapter 3

divide project into phases
Divide project into phases
  • The project development needs to be broken into phases of some kind
    • Waterfall life cycle phases?
    • RUP iterations?
    • ‘n’ spirals, then another life cycle?
  • The phases are very SDLC-dependent, and a key source for assumptions

Chapter 3

divide project into phases1
Divide project into phases
  • Each phase needs to have clearly defined deliverables
  • Phases also need decision points – milestones
    • How do you know when the phase is done?
    • Give the sponsor a chance to approve the work, and start the next phase

Chapter 3

task sequence time resources
Task sequence, time & resources
  • Once the phases have been defined, need to define the tasks within each phase, both for product development and for project management processes
    • That’s key to include both types of activities!
  • Tasks can be sequential, or parallel, or have to start or stop together

Chapter 3

task sequence time resources1
Task sequence, time & resources
  • Resources needed for a task might include development tools, facilities, test equipment, external system interfaces,
    • …and people
    • Cost for labor needs to include overhead costs, which typically totals 2.0 to 2.5 times their salary (roughly $100k to $300k/yr)

Chapter 3

task sequence time resources2
Task sequence, time & resources
  • Time for a task to be accomplished is the calendar time
    • Not everyone is devoted to a project 100% of the time
    • Some tasks might require many people at once
    • Some tasks can be done in parallel, other require sequential action

Chapter 3

baseline schedule and budget
Baseline schedule and budget
  • So all of the tasks, their costs, and other resources comprise the baseline plan for the project
  • From that plan, you can determine the overall schedule (calendar months) and cost for the project
    • This baseline plan is the basis for all ‘planned vs actual’ measurements during the project

Chapter 3

baseline schedule and budget1
Baseline schedule and budget
  • EVERYONE should review the baseline plan for consistency, completeness, and make sure it will really result in a system that will achieve its MOV
    • Remember, can only control two of cost, schedule, and scope – which one can you give up?

Chapter 3

kick off meeting
Kick-off meeting
  • Many projects start with a formal event to start them, a kick-off meeting
  • It provides a clear start to the project, helps introduce the major players (front line managers), and builds team morale

Chapter 3

summary
Summary
  • We’ve examined the key processes, both to develop a product and to manage a project
  • Reviewed the role of project integration management
  • Outlined a project charter and the process for developing the baseline project plan

Chapter 3