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SW Project Management Project Charter and Plan. INFO 420 Glenn Booker. Digging deeper. So far we’ve looked at projects from a fairly high level or strategic perspective The business case provided a high level justification of the project

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SW Project Management Project Charter and Plan

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    1. SW Project ManagementProject Charter and Plan INFO 420 Glenn Booker Chapter 3

    2. Digging deeper • So far we’ve looked at projects from a fairly high level or strategic perspective • The business case provided a high level justification of the project • Now it’s time to focus on a single project in more detail, and start fleshing out the details needed to make it a reality Chapter 3

    3. Project charter and plan • The second phase of the project life cycle develops the project charter and baseline project plan • These are the foundation for guiding the project through its implementation • A major role is to define subplans that, together, will achieve the project’s goals Chapter 3

    4. Subplans • Subplans help manage specific aspects of the overall project • Scope, schedule, budget, quality, risk, and people could each be the basis for a subplan • Combined with the project’s methodology, processes, and tools, they define the project’s infrastructure and framework Chapter 3

    5. Project planning overview • Much of the course will focus on the details of these various subplans • For now, introduce the project planning process and how it connects to the PMBOK • And we’ll link the MOV to the project’s scope, budget, and schedule Chapter 3

    6. Project planning overview • Ultimately the project plan will answer the basic concerns • Who is involved in the project? • How much will it cost? • How long will it take? • What will the finished product be able to do? Chapter 3

    7. Project processes • A process is a set of activities to achieve a particular purpose • Just like a kitchen recipe, or a programming algorithm • A project uses two types of processes • Project management processes • Product-oriented processes Chapter 3

    8. Project processes • Project management processes help run the project • Initiation, execution, closing, managing, etc. • Product-oriented processes are those that actually create the system or product • System development life cycle (SDLC) processes mostly fit in this category • You need both kinds of processes! Chapter 3

    9. The five project management process groups in the PMBOK define a project by the kinds of work to be done They often overlap different project phases They are: Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring and Controlling Closing PM process groups Chapter 3

    10. Initiating process group • Processes typically include • Developing a business case • Initializing a project • Getting approval of the business case • Preparation of the project charter Chapter 3

    11. Planning process group • Processes typically include • Planning of individual phases within a project, as well as planning the overall project • Planning project scope, activities, resources, costs, schedule, and procurement • Scope of processes should be consistent with the size of the project • Includes updating plans during the project Chapter 3

    12. Executing process group • Processes typically include • Matching people and resources to carry out the plans • Develop the system (software engineering processes, testing, etc.) • QA, risk management, and team development Chapter 3

    13. Monitoring and Controlling process group • Processes typically include • Balancing project scope, schedule, budget, and quality objectives • Monitor variances between planned & actuals • Take corrective action when needed • Scope, change, schedule, cost, & quality control processes; and communications plan Chapter 3

    14. Closing process group • Processes typically include • Getting customer approval for final deliverables • Contract closure • Administrative closure • Evaluate project against its MOV • Document lessons learned Chapter 3

    15. Project integration management • Project integration management (PIM) coordinates the other eight knowledge areas throughout a project life cycle • Includes deciding where to concentrate resources day to day • Proactive risk management • Coordinating work, and making tradeoffs among competing needs Chapter 3

    16. Project integration management • In many ways, PIM is a key role of the project manager • How do you keep the project on track in spite of personnel issues, resource issues, technical problems, etc.? • Understanding PIM processes is key to producing a good project plan Chapter 3

    17. PIM processes • Define the project charter • Gives the project manager authority to allocate resources • Develop the preliminary scope statement • This is part of the business case – the broad scope of what is and isn’t part of the system • Develop project management plan Chapter 3

    18. PIM processes • The subplans mentioned earlier need to be integrated within the overall PMP • Direct and manage project execution • The project manager integrates all the processes into one coherent project. Hopefully. • Monitor and control project work • Critical are corrective actions when project strays from the plan Chapter 3

    19. PIM processes • Preventative actions can be a good part of risk management • Defect repair and rework are needed to maintain quality • Integrated change control • Changes to the system need to be documented, reviewed, and approved Chapter 3

    20. PIM processes • Need to ensure all affected parties are aware of changes before approval is given • Close the project • This could include premature closure of the project, if needed • In any event, closure should be orderly Chapter 3

    21. Project management culture • Some organizations beg for trouble by pretending that project management isn’t really useful • To help instill a sense of the overall project management approach, follow these six principles Chapter 3

    22. Project management culture • Define the job in detail – know the scope and boundaries precisely • Get the right people involved • Estimate time and costs, including allowances for risks and scope assumptions Chapter 3

    23. Project management culture • Break the job down into a SOW • The SOW is a contract of project objectives • Establish and follow a change procedure • Agree on acceptance criteria – when are you done with each deliverable? Chapter 3

    24. Project sponsor • The project sponsor is a critical role for the success of any project • It’s someone outside the development team who is not only paying for the project, but also acts as a champion to support the project and protect it from outside threats Chapter 3

    25. Project sponsor • The sponsor: • Empowers the project manager • Maintains project support (“buy-in”) from other key stakeholders • Clears political and organizational roadblocks • Ensures availability of resources • Monitors project status and progress Chapter 3

    26. Project sponsor • Approves plans, schedules, budgets, and deliverables • Keeps the project focused on the goal • Since the sponsor is outside the development team, the project manager doesn’t control them • Loss of a sponsor can kill a project Chapter 3

    27. Project charter • The project charter is a high level agreement between the project sponsor and the project team • Documents the MOV, which may have been refined since the business case • Define project infrastructure • What resources, technology, methods, and PM processes will support the project? Chapter 3

    28. Project charter • Identify key personnel, facilities and tools • Summarize the project plan • Scope, schedule, budget, and quality objectives • Deliverables, major milestones • Define roles and responsibilities • Identify project sponsor, manager, key leads, and how they will communicate and make decisions Chapter 3

    29. Project charter • Express commitment to the project • Describe the resources committed to the project • Who will take ownership of the final product? • Define project control mechanisms • What processes will be followed for requesting, reviewing, and approving changes to project scope, cost, or schedule? Chapter 3

    30. Charter contents • A charter typically can contain: • Project identification, such as the name or acronym or logo by which it’s known • Critical for your team coffee mugs • Project stakeholders • Who are they? • What roles do they play? • Who reports to whom? Chapter 3

    31. Charter contents • Project description • Give a nice overview of the project, for someone who’s never heard of it • Might include the project’s vision or overall goals • Measurable organizational value • Yes, it’s important enough to get its own section • Project scope • Could be a formal SOW, or less formal narrative Chapter 3

    32. Charter contents • The project scope is less detailed than the project plan, but outlines the major features of the project, and what is not part of the project scope • Project schedule – at a high level, such as major phases and overall duration • Project budget – at least the totals • Quality issues, such as the standards to be followed, or other overall quality objectives Chapter 3

    33. Charter contents • Resources – who is providing people, technology, facilities, etc. to support the project • You don’t want an office in your daughter’s dorm room… • Assumptions and risks • Key people availability • Events that could change project scope, budget, or duration Chapter 3

    34. Charter contents • External constraints on the project, e.g. project interfaces to existing systems • Internal constraints, such as resource competition • Project impact on other parts of the organization • Environmental, political, economic, or other issues • Project administration • What plans will be developed to support this project? Scope mgmt, communications, quality mgmt, quality mgmt, change mgmt, HR, etc. Chapter 3

    35. Charter contents • Acceptance and approval • Who signs off on this puppy? • References • Terminology • Particularly helpful if the project scope spans many technical specialties, who don’t know each others’ acronyms and phrases Chapter 3

    36. Project planning framework • Now that the overall picture of the project has been defined (its charter), the detailed planning process can begin • The project planning framework describes the planning process • We start with the MOV Chapter 3

    37. Project planning framework • The project plan seeks to answer our pet perennial management questions • What needs to be done? • Who will do it? • When will they do it? • How long will it take? • How much will it cost? Chapter 3

    38. MOV Scope } Phases Sequence Schedule Resources Tasks Budget Time estimates Project planning framework Adapted from Fig 3.4 of text Chapter 3

    39. MOV • We start with the MOV, which hopefully was agreed upon by all key stakeholders • The MOV also connects to your organization’s strategic goals and mission, so making the project happy will also support your organization Chapter 3

    40. Define the project’s scope • Now we need to establish what the scope of the project really is • What features will be implemented? • Might help to look at broad categories of features (manufacturing, sales, HR management, etc.) then get more detailed in each category • What systems are/are not being replaced? • What job roles will be affected? Chapter 3

    41. Define the project’s scope • The planning stage of this defines the scope in a requirements document, or SOW, or use cases, or … something • Then the definition stage groups the scope into work packages, each with a set of related features (both in functionality and priority) Chapter 3

    42. Define the project’s scope • Then verification must occur to make sure the MOV will be satisfied by the chosen scope • The change control process is critical to manage adjustments to the scope Chapter 3

    43. Divide project into phases • The project development needs to be broken into phases of some kind • Waterfall life cycle phases? • RUP iterations? • ‘n’ spirals, then another life cycle? • The phases are very SDLC-dependent, and a key source for assumptions Chapter 3

    44. Divide project into phases • Each phase needs to have clearly defined deliverables • Phases also need decision points – milestones • How do you know when the phase is done? • Give the sponsor a chance to approve the work, and start the next phase Chapter 3

    45. Task sequence, time & resources • Once the phases have been defined, need to define the tasks within each phase, both for product development and for project management processes • That’s key to include both types of activities! • Tasks can be sequential, or parallel, or have to start or stop together Chapter 3

    46. Task sequence, time & resources • Resources needed for a task might include development tools, facilities, test equipment, external system interfaces, • …and people • Cost for labor needs to include overhead costs, which typically totals 2.0 to 2.5 times their salary (roughly $100k to $300k/yr) Chapter 3

    47. Task sequence, time & resources • Time for a task to be accomplished is the calendar time • Not everyone is devoted to a project 100% of the time • Some tasks might require many people at once • Some tasks can be done in parallel, other require sequential action Chapter 3

    48. Baseline schedule and budget • So all of the tasks, their costs, and other resources comprise the baseline plan for the project • From that plan, you can determine the overall schedule (calendar months) and cost for the project • This baseline plan is the basis for all ‘planned vs actual’ measurements during the project Chapter 3

    49. Baseline schedule and budget • EVERYONE should review the baseline plan for consistency, completeness, and make sure it will really result in a system that will achieve its MOV • Remember, can only control two of cost, schedule, and scope – which one can you give up? Chapter 3

    50. Kick-off meeting • Many projects start with a formal event to start them, a kick-off meeting • It provides a clear start to the project, helps introduce the major players (front line managers), and builds team morale Chapter 3