journalism and economics n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Journalism and Economics PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Journalism and Economics

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 53
olga-marsh

Journalism and Economics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

420 Views
Download Presentation
Journalism and Economics
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Journalism and Economics Right now, Economics is the world’s big story. In Europe, the debt and banking crisis … The rise of China … In the US, the jobless recovery … In Ukraine, ---------- In Belarus, ----------- International trade is important to understanding these events.

  2. Growth of worldwide trade In the past 50 years

  3. A bigger share of world GDP Increases 3x since 1970

  4. International macro-economics • Employment • Savings • Trade balances • Price levels of money Alternative: microeconomics – from the bottom up. Look at particular businesses and consumers. If we have time, direct conversation in that direction.

  5. My sources of help … • Parker, Kotlikoff, Krugman, Mankiw

  6. The questions that got me started • In Maine, Why are the wages so low? And work so dangerous? • What led to the loss of industry in Philadelphia?

  7. North Philadelphia .

  8. There was a lot I didn’t know What were the economic forces at work, and how I could understand and use them as a journalist? Was international competition a factor? It’s difficult to identify what you don’t know.

  9. Forming your questions Let’s identify what you are unsure about, elements of international trade and currency that you would like to better understand. Terms, connections, concepts, sources of information, aspects of trade economy or currency, even specific businesses. Trends, events, things happening in your cities that you would like to better understand through the lens of economics?

  10. What makes an economist? • Theories that express how the economy works • Numbers that express how the economy works Free trade equilibrium in the immobile factor model

  11. The journalist and economics Events Decisions, policies of government and business. Accountability of decision makers. The public’s understanding of events and issues. Economic literacy.

  12. Where does international economics fit into your work? Issues? Articles? People? Industries? Lives of readers?

  13. Why do countries trade?

  14. Countries trade because ... They are different … And because Trade allows them to achieve efficiencies in specific areas of production.

  15. Key concepts • Comparative advantage • Competitive advantage • Opportunity cost

  16. The Krugman example

  17. Comparative advantage “A country has a comparative advantage in producing a good if the opportunity cost of producing that good in terms of other goods is lower in that country than it is in other countries.”

  18. Allocating resources, industries The market makes these decisions … the invisible hand that responds to costs, prices, opportunities for profit. Ricardian model: The tendency of countries to specialize in products or services where they have a comparative advantage.

  19. Again, comparative advantage “Countries tend to specialize in products or services when it has lower unit labor requirements (or other factors of production).” Factors of production: Labor (from farmhands to programmers) Land (including all natural resources Capital (including all man-made resources, machines) Entrepreneurship

  20. Absolute advantage A country has an “absolute advantage” in trade when it can produce a product with less labor, for example, than another country. Absolute advantage is not a requirement for a country to be able to trade, for its own benefit, with another country.

  21. Favorable factors of production Ukraine? Belarus?

  22. Some basic concepts Trade is beneficial to the buyer and the seller. “Two countries can trade to their mutual advantage even when one of them is more efficient than the other at producing everything and producers in the less efficient country can compete only by paying lower wages.” – Krugman Trade can be thought of as an indirect form of production. One thing is produced and sold in order to buy something else.

  23. Some myths about trade • Foreign trade is beneficial only if your country is strong enough to stand up to foreign competition • Foreign trade is unfair if is based on low wages. • Foreign trade exploits workers in low wage countries.

  24. Debate: Arguments against free trade • It eliminates jobs in the home country • It can hurt industries that are important to national security • It prevents development of new “infant industries.” • It can represent unfair competition (wages, for example) • Trade barriers can become national bargaining chips -- Gregory Mankiw

  25. Trade doesn’t benefit everyone inside the country • Some people gain, some people lose. “Trade can hurt people in specific industries that compete with imports if they can not find another source of employment… It can also alter the distribution of income between groups.” – Krugman • The nation as a whole gains • Policy response to the pain from trade • A source of stories for journalists

  26. A current critique Trade as mutually beneficial is taken as a fundamental assumption by economists … But there is some rethinking, in special cases, of fully free trade by some including Joseph Stiglitz. (“Globalization and its Discontents”) IMF China Policy debates informed by economics.

  27. What are your premises? Ideology? • Free markets (with qualifications) • Free trade (with qualifications) • Prudent government engagement • Low unemployment, low inflation • Rising personal income

  28. What makes an economist? • Theories that express how the economy works • Numbers that express how the economy works

  29. Economic indicators • Blood pressure test • Key indicators: GNP, GDP, national income accounts, trade. • Examples and discussion of indicators

  30. Some advice on numbers - Take a breath, don’t panic • We look for the story hidden in the numbers: A change, or something unusual, or it stands out as a question that leads to ask “Why?” • The number compared to other numbers in a data set (US unemployment) • A single number standing by itself is not so useful. Belarus GDP:$ 54.7 Billion • The way a number changes over time – trends. Ukraine GDP, 2010: $305.229 Billion • The number expressed as a ratio – in other words, a number in comparison to a different number. GDP/ population or per capital GDP.

  31. A system for tracking trade • Balance of payments • Current account • Capital account

  32. International trade Now Value of exports - goods and services Value of imports - goods and services Export categories - goods and services Import categories - goods and services Exports minus imports Current account National income (GNP) Consumption Investment Government expenditure Current account Current account / GNP (or GDP) GNP (or GDP) / population Country Country Country Country Country

  33. Connecting trade and national wealth Gross National Product: The value of all final goods and services produced in a country by its factors of production and sold on the market in a given time period.” GNP = National income (more or less) The value of the output (GNP) is arrived at by adding up all the expenditures on final output. NATIONAL INCOME = Consumption + Investment (set aside for future production including inventories) + Government spending + Exports – minus imports <Income, by this definition, equals output.)

  34. GNP, GDP Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is similar to GNP but not exactly the same. They tend to track one another, so the distinction for our purposes here is not that important. GDP: The value of production within a country’s borders. It does not capture some income generated in another country.

  35. What does I mean to be rich, poor? GDP or GNP/ capita is an average, but it gives us metric to consider standard of living. Ukraine (1) Belarus (1)

  36. International trade Now Value of exports - goods and services Value of imports - goods and services Export categories - goods and services Import categories - goods and services Exports minus imports Current account National income (GNP) Consumption Investment Government expenditure Current account Current account / GNP (or GDP) GNP (or GDP) / population Country Country Country Country Country

  37. National income, again NATIONAL INCOME = Consumption + Investment + Government spending + Exports – imports (current account balance)

  38. Capital account What happens when the capital account is in deficit?

  39. Forms of borrowing to finance a current account deficit • Bond finance • Bank finance • Official lending (World Bank, for example) • Direct foreign investment • Portfolio investment in ownership of firms

  40. Greece • Current account balance • Borrowing. • Banks, and credit-default swaps.

  41. Analysis of Exports • The picture in general of Ukraine and Belarus(1)

  42. Now some closer examination • Which sectors, which industries? • How are they competing? What are the factor inputs? Why is an exportable item? Is the price subsidized in some way? • Steel industry in Ukraine, for example. • See Richard Parker.

  43. Characteristics of developing countries • Extensive government control of economy • History of high inflation • Weak credit institutions • Currency rates are managed by the government • High proportion of natural resource sales or farm commodities • Gray economies – tax evasion, corruption.

  44. Where does international economics fit into your work? Issues? Articles? People? Industries? Lives of readers?

  45. Exercises for you • Chart the basic trends in your nation or region • Draw comparisons to other nations • Relate the trends to prices, wages and job security

  46. Basic knowledge of your country’s trade position Which indicators? What else do you want to know?

  47. Reporting upstream • Richard Parker’s point

  48. Turning statistics into stories

  49. Areas of your coverage • Bring this later into the presentation

  50. Factors affecting imports and exports • Consumer tastes • Prices • Exchange rates • Consumer incomes • Transportation costs • Government policies