Lucid Dreams. Group 10 : Chi-Hang Lau, Anita Leung, Clarisse Miguel, Elisa Tsan, Alistair Wong COGS 175 Dr. Pineda March 3, 2008. Presentation Outline. Introduction : What are Lucid Dreams? (Clarisse) Characteristics (Anita) Experimental Evidence and Techniques (Elisa, Clarisse)
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Lucid Dreams Group 10 : Chi-Hang Lau, Anita Leung, Clarisse Miguel, Elisa Tsan, Alistair Wong COGS 175 Dr. Pineda March 3, 2008
Presentation Outline • Introduction : What are Lucid Dreams? (Clarisse) • Characteristics (Anita) • Experimental Evidence and Techniques (Elisa, Clarisse) • Induction of Lucid Dreams (Alistair) • Applications (Alistair, Chi-Hang) • Conclusion/Discussion (Together)
What is a Lucid Dream? • The “Conscious” Dream • Knowing you are dreaming, when you are dreaming. • An Alternate State of Consciousness? • Becoming conscious during sleep
A Brief History • Aristotle’s On Dreams • St. Augustine, A.D. 415 • Tibetan Buddhists(8th Century) • ‘Dream’ Yoga - reaching the ‘light’ • The Marquis d’Hervey de Saint-Denys • wrote Dreams and the Means to Direct Them (1867) • Frederik Willems van Eeden • coined ‘lucid dream’ (1913)
Characteristics of Lucid Dreams • Full awareness of dream state (consciously and perceptually) • Ability to make free decisions in the dream • Memory functions as if in waking life • i.e. Full memory of all lucid dream experiences in waking state as well as during lucid dream state • Awareness of the meaning of symbols
Important Brain Areas Involved in Lucid Dreaming • Dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex • Dietrich • While non-lucid dreaming, PET studies show a large deactivation of areas in DL • Contrary, in lucid dreaming, there is DL activation(Hobson 2001) • Inferior parietal lobe • LaBerge • Showed increases in inferior parietal lobe activity in lucid dreaming, an area known to involve consciousness
Stages of Sleep • NREM (non-rapid eye movement) • Stage 1: theta waves • Stage 2: sleep spindles and k complexes • Stage 3: delta waves (<50% total wave patterns) • Stage 4: delta waves (>50% total wave patterns) • REM (rapid eye movement) • Tonic: persistent sleep events (striated and desynchronized muscle inhibition) • Phasic: intermittent sleep events (rapid eye movements, muscle twitches)
Polysomnographic recordings • EEG : electrical activity from brain via electrodes on scalp • EOG (electrooculogram) :resting potential of retina • EMG (electromyogram) :muscular activity • FP (finger plethysmograph):blood flow
Spectral Analysis • delta (1-4 Hz) • theta (5-7 Hz) • alpha (8-12 Hz) • beta-1 (13-19 Hz) • beta-2 (20-29 Hz)
Physiological Differences (Holzinger et al. 2006) • epochs of lucid dreaming associated with more beta-1 activity than non-lucid dreaming • Beta-1 activity ratios • Frontal : parietal • Non-lucid = 1.00 : 1.16 • Lucid = 1.00 : 1.77 • Hemispheric differences • highest increase in left parietal lobe (an area associated with semantic capacity)
Experimental Inducement • Experimental Training • M.I.L.D. Technique(LaBerge, 1981) • “Mnemonic Induction of Lucid Dreams” • Increases occurrence of lucid dreams • Mental and verbal rehearsals upon waking and before sleeping • Incorporate into Long-Term Memory “I will have a lucid dream tonight”
Recognizing a Lucid Dream • How do we know ?
Recognizing a Lucid Dream • How do we know ? • REM Sleep • Phasic activity(LaBerge et al. 1986)
Recognizing a Lucid Dream • How do we know ? • REM Sleep • Phasic activity (LaBerge et al. 1986) • Physiological Signals
Recognizing a Lucid Dream • How do we know ? • REM Sleep • Phasic activity (LaBerge et al. 1986) • Physiological Signals • Eye Movement (LeftRight L R) • lucid dream occurring
Recognizing a Lucid Dream • How do we know ? • REM Sleep • Phasic activity (LaBerge et al. 1986) • Physiological Signals • Eye Movement (LeftRight L R) • lucid dream occurring • Hand Clenching (Left and Right) (Erlacher et al. 2003)
Recognizing a Lucid Dream • How do we know ? • REM Sleep • Phasic activity (LaBerge et al. 1986) • Physiological Signals • Eye Movement (LeftRight L R) • lucid dream occurring • Hand Clenching (Left and Right) (Erlacher et al. 2003) • More accurate experimental methods • Match physiological signal to dream occurrence
Induction Techniques • Dream Journal • Write down your dreams
Induction Techniques • Dream Journal • Write down your dreams • Reality Checks • Consciously ask if you are in a dream
Induction Techniques • Dream Journal • Write down your dreams • Reality Checks • Consciously ask if you are in a dream • Meditation • Focus and intend on lucid dreaming
Applications of Lucid Dreaming • Explore subconscious mind • Overcome mental obstacles • Alleviating fears
Lucid Dream Treatment Pilot Study • Conducted by Spoormaker and van den Bout in 2006 • Hypothesis: Can exercises in Lucid dreaming be used to overcome sufferers of chronic nightmares?
Lucid Dream Treatment Pilot Study: Subjects • 23 volunteers • Excluded people suffering from hypnagogic hallucinations and/or night terrors • Excluded subjects currently on medication • All reported to suffer from Chronic Nightmares for over a year • Nightmare defined as a frightening dream to directly caused a return to full consciousness (awakening).
Lucid Dreaming Treatment Pilot Study: Method • Subjects were given the Sleep-50 to evaluate sleep • Subjects divided into three groups, each given a different degree of LDT. <Group1>: Each subject given a one on one LDT seminar <Group2>: Subjects given group LDT seminar <Group3>: No LDT seminar was given
Lucid Dream Treatment Pilot Study: Method (cont.) • Subjects were reevaluated 12 weeks later with the Sleep-50
Lucid Dreaming Treatment Pilot Study: LDT seminar • 2 hour seminar • Subjects educated about Lucid Dreaming and triggering methods • Given imaging exercises the nightmare, while reaffirming them as a dream. • Instructed Subjects to try to induce nightmares before sleep to occur during sleep.
Lucid Dreaming Treatment Pilot Study: Discussion • Study had many limitations: - small sample size - limited time frame - LDT seminar limited - Sleep-50 fail to report more detailed information on subjects. - Only 6 subjects successfully reported full Lucid Dreaming
Lucid Dreaming Treatment Pilot Study: Discussion (cont.) • Study Headway - Statistically significant results. - LDT did target nightmare specifically, not quality of sleep - As a pilot study, leaves much room for further study.
Discussion ! • Questions ?
References • Dietrich, Arne. Functional neuroanatomy of altered states of consciousness: The transient hypofrontality hypothesis. Consciousness and Cognition 12, 2003. pp. 231–256. • Erlacher, Daniel D., Michael Shredl, Stephen LaBerge. Motor area activation during dreamed hand clenching: A pilot study on EEG alpha band. Sleep and Hypnosis. Volume 5(4). 2003. pp. 182-187. • Fisher, Leslie E., Benjamin Wallace. Consciousness and Behavior. Waveland Press, IL, 2003. • Gackenbach, Jayne, Stephen LaBerge. Conscious Mind, Sleeping Brain: Perspectives on Lucid Dreaming. Plenum Press, New York, 1988. • Holzinger, Brigitte, LaBerge, Stephen, Levitan, Lynne. Psychophysiological Correlates of Lucid Dreaming. Dreaming. Vol 16(2), Jun 2006, pp. 88-95. • LaBerge, Stephen S., Lucid dreaming: Physiological correlates of consciousness during REM sleep. The Journal of mind and behavior. Vol. 7(2-3), 1986. pp. 251-258.
References (Cont.) • LaBerge Stephen S. Lucid dreaming verified by volitional communication during REM sleep. Vol 52(3), 1981. pp. 727-732. • Spoormaker, Victor I., Jan van den Bout, and Eli J. G. Meijer. Lucid Dreaming Treatment for Nightmares: A Series of Cases. Dreaming, Vol. 13, No. 3, September 2003. pp. 181-186. 9. Wantanabe, Tsuneo. Lucid Dreaming: It’s Experimental Proof and Psychological Conditions. J. Intl. Soc. LifeInfo. Sci. Vol. 21, No.1, March 2003. pp. 159-165. 10. Spoormaker, Victor I., Jan van den Bout. Lucid Dreaming Treatment for Nightmares: A Pilot Study. Psychother Psychosom 75, 2006. pp. 389–394. • The Lucidity Institute. http://www.lucidty.com. (accessed February 2008). 12. Dr. Susan Blackmore. “Lucid Dreaming: Awake in Your Sleep?” http://www.susanblackmore.co.uk/Articles/si91ld.html (accessed February 2008).