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Development as a Concept: The Problem. “some nations, including the United States, may be retreating into a fortress like nationalism…” - Robert Kaplan, “Ends of the Earth” argument. Development as a Concept: The Problem. (Kaplan’s view)

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development as a concept the problem
Development as a Concept: The Problem

“some nations, including the United States, may be retreating into a fortress like nationalism…”

- Robert Kaplan, “Ends of the Earth” argument

development as a concept the problem1
Development as a Concept: The Problem

(Kaplan’s view)

  • Certain countries are separating and being separated from the world economy
    • All of Africa except Egypt
    • Cambodia
    • Indian sub-continent
    • South East Asia
    • Parts of Central/South America and the Balkans will follow
development as a concept the problem2
Development as a Concept: The Problem

(Kaplan’s view)

  • Economic and social development is “generally cruel, painful, violent, and uneven…”
development as a concept the problem3
Development as a Concept: The Problem

“The industrialized countries, which accounted for 40 percent of the world's population after World War II, now account for only 20 percent, though they earn 85 percent of the world's income. In the coming decades, the industrialized world is expected to make up only 12 to 15 percent of the planetary population, as 90 to 95 percent of all births take place in the poorest countries...I [see] around the world-poverty, the collapse of cities, porous borders, cultural and racial strife, growing economic disparities, weakening nation-states--We are not in control...”

how did we get to this point
How Did We Get to this Point?
  • Historical Structures
    • Overseas colonial structures, land-based colonialism, post-colonial society
  • Problem of Defining Development and Modernization Theory
  • Colonial Underdevelopment Argument
overseas colonial structures values and post colonial society 1500 1950
Overseas Colonial Structures, Values, and Post-Colonial Society (1500-1950)
  • “De Jure” colonialism
    • legal and internationally recognized formal control of government structures when trade, economic and governmental sectors of a society are formally or legally controlled by another country
  • “De Jure” overseas colonialism (Mercantilism)
    • creation of external trade patterns and government expenditures directed toward the development of an export economy
colonial structures values and post colonial society 1500 1950
Colonial Structures, Values, and Post-Colonial Society (1500-1950)
  • “Old Colonialism” vs. “New Colonialism”
    • Early colonial development focused on infrastructure to support export and import trade
    • Human resource development was neglected
    • ideology of Free trade that masked a reality which developed markets for mother country goods and provided raw materials for industrial production
the colonial prefect
The Colonial Prefect
  • Named the district officer, magistrate, landrost, district commissioner, the commandant, the collector
  • By contrast, administration was Functional in Spanish Latin America, Philippines, and in some Neo-Colonial systems—no prefect
  • Government expenditure was limited to the military and police
land based colonialism
Land Based Colonialism
  • Do the terms colonialism and underdevelopment work for Eastern Europe, the CIS, Central Asia and the Caucasus?
  • Administrative structures were similar to those of overseas colonialism
  • These are often labeled “Transitional States”
land based colonialism1
Land Based Colonialism
  • Janine Wedel, in Collision and Collusion, raises two questions:
    • Are transitional states “developmental?”
    • Are they transitional?

What does she mean?

de facto colonialism
De Facto Colonialism
  • No formal legal ties but in practice power relationships between colonial powers and puppet regimes
    • Thailand, Ethiopia, Persia, Nepal, the Arabian Peninsula, and Afghanistan, much of Latin America after the 1850s
    • Parallel between formal colonial systems and informal influence
the end of empire
The End of Empire
  • Nationalism developed in the 1930s and 1940s throughout much of the colonial world including much of central and Eastern Europe. It had four variations
neo nationalism in latin america
Neo-Nationalism in Latin America
  • Impacts of the functions of government
    • Territorial Governors appointed by the President
    • The importance of Military control in regions -Spanish Military Governors called Presidencies
  • Patronage
    • Legalistic basis of governance in principle
    • Clientalist, class or mass based appeal, charisma
    • Community level political culture: “localismo” inward looking villages and communities
further reading on latin america
Further Reading on Latin America

Kenneth J. Andrien, The Kingdom of Quito: The State and Regional Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Peter S. Cleaves, Bureaucratic Politics and Administration in Chile (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974).

Keith Griffin, Underdevelopment in Spanish America: An Interpretation (London: Geoge Allen, 1969)

Jack Hopkins, (ed.) Latin America: Perspectives on a Region (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1987).

Howard J. Wiarda, Politics and social change in Latin America : still a distinct tradition? (Boulder : Westview Press, 1992).

socialism and fascism
Socialism and Fascism
  • Some have used the term “Totalitarianism”
  • Legacy of Imperial and Socialist Land Based Empires (Russia, Austria and Turkey)
    • Multi-ethnicity and land based expansion
    • Dominant Nationalism
    • Absence of Renaissance
    • Revolutionary Transformation and Collapse in the 20th Century
    • Primacy of the Party under “Socialism”
    • Prefectoral Model of local state: Party Authority
keynesianism as economic principle
Keynesianism as Economic Principle
  • Government had a role in the management of the economy
  • KEY: Faith in the State
    • Physical development (roads and dams) and Economic Growth
    • Physical and Mental Change or Social Development
    • Human Resource Development vs. Social and Economic Change
    • Proposed a Mixed Economy—public and private
john maynard keynes 1883 1946
John Maynard Keynes, 1883-1946
  • British Economist who worked several years in the British India Office 
  • John Rapley: “Keynes had no problem with the market economy. He liked the machine but judged it to be in need of improvement if it was to operate well.”
    • His goal was to influence the market and not replace it
    • Influenced the U.S. New Deal and the thinking of the Labour Party in England
    • He had an important influence on the social democratic parties in Western Europe
    • His ideas suggested that European mixed economies could be replicated in LDCs
from middle class nationalism to mass movements
From Middle Class Nationalism to Mass Movements
  • World War II led to the collapse of over seas empires
    • begins Japanese imperialism and Asian nationalism
    • The Atlantic Treaty and self-determinism
    • Two patterns: Gandhi and non-violence and Sukarno, Ho Chi Minh and violent resistance or revolution
    • implication was that economic development would follow
    • Between 1945 and 1965 more than one hundred new states came into existence
the development era 1948 2001
The “Development Era” 1948-2001
  • 1. In the 1940s and 1950s there was a rhetoric of Nationalism through out the World
  • 2. Political Change (Nationalism in the Middle East, and Latin America) and Independence (Caribbean, Africa, and Asia (1960s-1970s)
  • Transformation in Eastern Europe and the CIS (1980s)
quote of the day
Quote of the Day
  • Okot p’Bitek—Uganda novelist

“Foreign ‘Experts’ and Peace Corps swarm the Country Like white Ants.” (1966)

japan and the history of development toland the rising sun
Japan and the History of Development (Toland, The Rising Sun)
  • What was the Pre-War Japanese Government view of Colonialism in Asia?
  • Why is Japan Important in the development of nationalism in Africa and Asia?
    • For Further Reading: Herbert P. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan (New York: Harper Collins, 2000).
  • Paul Theroux, “Tarzan is an Expatriate”
    • How does the p’Bitek quote relate to the Theroux article?
    • What is the significance of the 1966 article by Paul Theroux in the year 2001?
  • Paul Theroux: Dark Star Safari: Overland from Cairo to Cape Town (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003).
colonial values
Colonial Values
  • George Orwell, “Shooting the Elephant”

1. What is the issue here?

2. Should Orwell have shot the Elephant?

3. What does the Orwell story tell us about development?

author of the day
  • Kathleen Staudt
    • Kathleen Staudt: Peace Corps Volunteer in the Philippines (1966-1968)
    • Is there a grass-roots perspective?
    • Why or Why not?
author s issues
  • John Rapley
  • Jennifer Brinkerhoff
  • Pressman and Wildavsky