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The U.S. Hostage Crisis in Iran. 444 Days in Captivity. Background of the Shah . First came to power during WWII Deposed in the late forties Reinstalled by a CIA-led coup in 1953 approved by the Eisenhower administration. The “White Revolution”.

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the u s hostage crisis in iran

The U.S. Hostage Crisis in Iran

444 Days in Captivity

background of the shah
Background of the Shah
  • First came to power during WWII
  • Deposed in the late forties
  • Reinstalled by a CIA-led coup in 1953 approved by the Eisenhower administration
the white revolution
The “White Revolution”
  • Divested the clergy of their vast landholdings
  • Declared new rights for women
    • Right to vote
    • Right to attend university
  • Dramatically increased urbanization and industrialization
  • Exiles the Ayatollah Khomeini after he criticizes the Shah
westernize or bust
Westernize or Bust!
  • Most Iranians did not want to abandon their rich heritage for Western Ways
  • Found inspiration in the sermons of Muslim leaders who denounced the material West
  • The Shah maintained control with harsh repression and brutality
    • SAVAK
allah hu akbar marg bar shah
Allah Hu Akbar, Marg Bar Shah!
  • Demonstrations increased demanding the shah be deposed
  • Demonstrators demanded the return of the exiled Ayatollah Khomeini
  • The country was out of control
exit the shah
Exit the Shah!
  • Offers the premiership to Dr. Shahpur Bahktiar
  • Leaves the country January 16, 1979
  • The Ayatollah was invited back
  • Tens of thousands of demonstrators demanded the return of an Islamic state.
  • Dr. Bahktiar leaves
islamic state returns
Islamic State Returns
  • Enemies of the Islamic Revolution are tried and executed
  • All political parties and organizations are banned
  • Independent and non-Islamic newspapers are closed.
  • Banks and Industries are Nationalized.
iranian revolution escalates
Iranian Revolution Escalates
  • US interests in the Persian Gulf are threatened.
    • No access to Iranian Oil
    • Cancellation of $7 billion of uncompleted arms contracts
  • Anti American sentiment runs high.
marg bar amrika
“Marg Bar Amrika!”
  • Sunday, November 4, 1979 the US Embassy in Teheran is stormed
  • Sixty-six hostages taken
  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carter/peopleevents/e_hostage.html
oh canada
Oh Canada!
  • Six Americans seek refuge at the Canadian Embassy
  • Tense moments
  • Ottawa and Canadian Embassy prepare to evacuate
iran s hostage demands
Iran’s Hostage Demands
  • Return the Shah for trial
  • Return the Shah’s wealth to the people of Iran
  • Admission of guilt by the US
  • An apology and promise to stay out of Iran’s affairs.
president carter s response
President Carter’s Response
  • Refused to send the Shah back
  • Froze all Iranian Government financial assets
  • Forbade American companies from buying Iranian oil
  • 13 hostages freed
u s reaction to hostage crisis
U.S. Reaction to Hostage Crisis
  • Demonstrations at the Iranian Embassy in the US
  • Record sales of Iranian flags, which were then burned
  • Iranian Americans were harassed
renewed sense of patriotism
Renewed Sense of Patriotism
  • CBS anchor Walter Cronkite
    • http://www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/videoplayer/newVid/framesource_old.html?clip=/media/2001/01/19/video265570.rm
  • Hostages became a national obsession
  • Penelope Laingen and the yellow ribbon
america s frustration grows
America’s Frustration Grows
  • On April 7, President Carter announces the severing of diplomatic relations with Iran
  • Complete economic embargo
  • Inventory of financial claims against Iran to be paid from Iranian assets in the U.S.
  • All Iranian diplomats are told to leave the country in 24 hours.
operation eagle claw
Operation Eagle Claw
  • April 24, 1980
  • 8 helicoptors from the Nimitz were to rendezvous with 6 transports at Desert One
  • Then fly to Desert Two to drive to Teheran where the CIA had arranged for several Iranians to help storm the embassy
mission aborted
Mission Aborted!
  • The first mission for the newly formed Delta Force
  • Pilots did not have experience, flying at night, flying low, and in sand storms.
  • The sandstorm disabled three helicoptors, one collided with a transport and both burst into flames killing eight Americans
president carter accepts full blame
President Carter Accepts Full Blame
  • Little hope for a second attempt because the hostages were dispersed to various locations
  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carter/peopleevents/e_hostage.html
  • Carter’s popularity sinks
  • The Shah dies in July
on wings of eagles
“On Wings of Eagles”
  • Ross Perot’s hires Col. Bull Simon to rescue two EDS employees in an Iran prison.
  • Successful mission
  • Ken Follett novel
1980 presidential campaign
1980 Presidential Campaign
  • The Reagan-Bush team realized that the hostage issue would determine the election
  • Americans needed to hear stirring phrases of national purpose, and believe in the future.
  • Wins by a landslide, Nov. 4
  • Started selling arms to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua, using the money to pay Iran ransom
the hostages are freed
The Hostages are Freed
  • Carter released $8 billion in frozen Iranian assets the morning of the inauguration
  • The hostages board planes
  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carter/peopleevents/e_hostage.html
where are they now
Where Are They Now?
  • The Shah’s son is attended school at USC
  • Trained as a pilot in the US Airforce
  • Acknowledges some of the evil that his father was accused of
  • Is gathering support to return to Iran