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Water and the Major Minerals. Chapter 12. Water and the Body Fluids. Water constitutes majority of body weight Body composition Females Obese people Elderly . Water and the Body Fluids. Carries nutrients and waste products Maintains structure of large molecules

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water and the body fluids
Water and the Body Fluids
  • Water constitutes majority of body weight
    • Body composition
      • Females
      • Obese people
      • Elderly
water and the body fluids1
Water and the Body Fluids
  • Carries nutrients and waste products
  • Maintains structure of large molecules
  • Participates in metabolic reactions
  • Serves as a solvent
  • Acts as a lubricant and cushion
  • Aids in regulation of body temperature
  • Maintains blood volume
water balance and recommended intake
Water Balance and Recommended Intake
  • Cellular fluids
    • Intracellular fluid
    • Extracellular fluid
      • Interstitial fluid
      • Intravascular fluid
water balance and recommended intake1
Water Balance and Recommended Intake
  • Water intake
    • Thirst and satiety
      • Mouth, hypothalamus, and nerves
    • Thirst response lags behind the body’s need for water
      • Dehydration symptoms
    • Water intoxication
      • Symptoms
water balance and recommended intake2
Water Balance and Recommended Intake
  • Sources
    • Water
    • Beverages
    • Foods
    • Condensation reactions
    • Oxidation of energy-yielding nutrients
water balance and recommended intake3
Water Balance and Recommended Intake
  • Losses
    • Minimum excretion each day as urine
    • Vapor from lungs
    • Sweat from skin
    • Loss in feces
  • Recommendations
    • Needs vary
    • AI for total water
water balance and recommended intake4
Water Balance and Recommended Intake
  • Health effects
    • Meet bodily needs
    • Protect against urinary stones & constipation
    • Concentration, alertness, and short-term memory
    • Type of water
      • Hard water
      • Soft water
blood volume and blood pressure
Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
  • Kidneys are central to blood volume and pressure maintenance
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland
    • Water-conserving hormone
      • Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water
    • Events trigger thirst
blood volume and blood pressure1
Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
  • Renin
    • Enzyme released by kidney cells when blood pressure is low
    • Kidneys reabsorb sodium
      • Water retention
  • Angiotensin
    • Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
      • Convert to active form – angiotensin II
blood volume and blood pressure2
Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
  • Aldosterone
    • Released from adrenal glands
      • Release stimulated by angiotensin II
    • Signals kidneys
      • Excrete potassium
      • Retain sodium
fluid and electrolyte balance
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
  • Fluid balance
    • Two-thirds inside the cells
    • One-third outside the cells
  • Dissociation of salt
    • Sodium – cation
    • Chloride – anion
    • Conduct electricity
fluid and electrolyte balance1
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
  • Electrolytes attract water
    • Water molecules have net charge of zero
  • Water follows electrolytes
    • Electrolytes predominantly outside of cell
      • Sodium and chloride
    • Electrolytes predominantly inside of cell
      • Potassium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate
    • Selectively permeable membranes







Water can flow both ways across the divider, but has a greater tendency to move from side A to side B, where there is a greater concentration of solute. The volume of water becomes greater on side B, and the concentrations on side A and B become equal.

Now additional solute is added to side B. Solute cannot flow across the divider (in the case of a cell, its membrane).

With equal numbers

of solute particles

on both sides of

the semipermeable membrane, the concentrations

are equal, and the tendency of water

to move in either direction is about

the same.

Stepped Art

Fig. 12-6, p. 391

fluid and electrolyte balance2
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
  • Proteins regulate fluid movement
    • Attract water
    • Transport proteins
      • Passage of ions across cell membranes
      • Sodium-potassium pump
  • Regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance
    • Two sites
      • GI tract
      • Kidneys
fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance
  • Causes of imbalance
    • Prolonged vomiting or diarrhea
    • Heavy sweating
    • Burns
    • Traumatic wounds
    • Some medications
  • An imbalance can result in a medical emergency
fluid and electrolyte imbalance1
Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance
  • Solutes lost depend on why fluid is lost
    • Vomiting or diarrhea – sodium
    • Tumor development – potassium
  • Replacing lost fluids and electrolytes
    • Plain cool water and regular foods
    • Special replacement fluids
acid base balance
Acid-Base Balance
  • Regulation of acidity
    • Narrow pH range to avoid life-threatening consequences
      • Denaturation of proteins
  • Concentration of hydrogen ions
    • High hydrogen concentration – acidic
    • Low hydrogen concentration – basic
acid base balance1
Acid-Base Balance
  • Body defense against pH fluctuation
    • Buffers in blood
      • Bicarbonate
      • Carbonic acid
    • Respiration in lungs
    • Excretion in kidneys
      • Bicarbonate
the minerals an overview
The Minerals – An Overview
  • Major vs. trace minerals
    • Variation in amounts needed
  • Inorganic elements
    • Always retain chemical identity
    • Cannot be destroyed by heat, air, acid, or mixing
  • Body’s absorption and handling
    • Freely or with carriers
the minerals an overview1
The Minerals – An Overview
  • Bioavailability
    • Varies
      • Food binders
  • Nutrient interactions
    • Presence of other minerals
      • Absorption, metabolism, and excretion
  • Varied roles
  • Roles in body
    • Principal cation of extracellular fluid
      • Primary regulator of volume
    • Acid-base balance
    • Nerve impulse transmission
    • Muscle contraction
  • Sodium travels freely in the blood
  • Kidneys: filter out and return what is needed
  • Recommendations
    • Diets rarely lack sodium
    • UL for adults
      • Average intake in U.S. exceeds the UL
  • Hypertension
    • Salt vs. sodium or chloride alone
    • Salt intake
    • DASH diet
  • Bone Loss (osteoporosis)
    • High salt intake is associated with increased calcium excretion
      • Potassium as protective factor
    • DASH diet recommendation
  • Food sources
    • Processed foods
      • More sodium
      • Less potassium
  • Deficiency
    • Conditions causing a deficiency
      • Hyponatremia
  • Toxicity
    • Acute
      • Edema and high blood pressure
    • Chronic
      • Hypertension
  • Essential nutrient
  • Roles in the body
    • Major anion of extracellular fluids
      • Moves passively across membranes
      • Associates with sodium and potassium
    • Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
    • Part of hydrochloric acid
  • Recommendations and intakes
    • Abundant in processed foods
    • Recommendations are slightly higher, but still equivalent to those of sodium
  • Deficiency and toxicity
    • Diets rarely lack chloride
    • Conditions leading to deficiency
    • Toxicity – due to water deficiency
  • Principal intracellular cation
  • Roles in the body
    • Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
    • Helps maintain cell integrity
    • Aids in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
  • Recommendations and intakes
    • Fresh foods are richest sources
    • AI for potassium
      • Increase fruit and vegetable consumption
  • Hypertension
    • Diets low in potassium
    • Diets high in potassium
    • Risk of stroke
  • Deficiency
    • Increase in blood pressure
    • Salt sensitivity
    • Kidney stones
    • Bone turnover
    • Irregular heartbeats
    • Muscle weakness
    • Glucose intolerance
  • Toxicity
    • No UL
    • Overconsumption of potassium salts or supplements
    • Certain diseases or treatments
    • Kidneys accelerate excretion
  • Most abundant mineral in the body
  • Adequate intake
    • Grows a healthy skeleton in early life
    • Helps minimize bone loss in later life
  • Majority of body’s calcium is in bones and teeth
    • Part of bone structure
    • Calcium bank
  • In bones
    • Calcium salts form crystals
      • Hydroxyapatite
    • Strength and rigidity to maturing bones
    • Bone remodeling
  • In teeth
    • Fluoride stabilizes calcium crystals in teeth
  • In body fluids
    • Helps to maintain normal blood pressure
    • Extracellular calcium
      • Participates in blood clotting
    • Intracellular calcium
      • Regulation of muscle contraction
      • Transmission of nerve impulses
      • Secretion of hormones
      • Activation of some enzyme reactions
  • Disease prevention
    • Hypertension
    • Blood cholesterol
    • Diabetes
    • Colon cancer
  • Obesity
    • May help maintain healthy body weight
      • Inverse relationship with food sources
  • Calcium balance
    • Involves system of hormones and vitamin D
      • Parathyroid hormone & calcitonin
    • Organ system response
      • Intestines
      • Bones
      • Kidneys
    • Calcium rigor
    • Calcium tetany
  • Absorption
    • Adults absorb about 30% of the calcium ingested
      • Stomach’s acidity – calcium soluble
      • Vitamin D – calcium-binding protein
    • Efficiency and inadequate intakes
    • Factors that enhance calcium absorption
    • Factors that inhibit calcium absorption
  • Recommendations
    • Based on amount needed to retain calcium in bones
      • Peak bone mass
    • Set high enough to accommodate 30% absorption rate
    • UL has been established
    • Adverse effects from supplements
  • Milk products
    • Calcium is most abundant in milk products
    • Conceal milk products in foods
    • Consequences of drinking too little milk
  • Other foods
    • Bioavailability
    • Fortified juices and foods
  • Calcium and iron

Cauliflower, watercress, brussels sprouts, rutabaga, kale, mustard greens, bok choy, broccoli, turnip greens

≥ 50% absorbed

≈ 30% absorbed

Milk, calcium-fortified soy milk, calcium-set tofu, cheese, yogurt, calcium- fortified foods and beverages

≈ 20% absorbed

Almonds, sesame seeds, pinto beans, sweet potatoes

≤ 5% absorbed

Spinach, rhubarb, Swiss chard

Stepped Art

Fig. 12-15, p. 404

  • Deficiency
    • Peak bone mass by late 20s
    • All adults lose bone with age
      • Begins between 30 and 40 years of age
    • Osteopenia
    • Osteoporosis
      • Silent disease
      • Blood samples offer no clues
  • Second most abundant mineral in body
    • Hydroxyapatite crystals of bone and teeth
  • Roles in body
    • Part of major buffer system
    • Part of DNA and RNA
    • Assists in energy metabolism
    • Helps transport lipids in the blood
    • Structural component of cell membranes
  • Recommendations and intakes
    • Deficiencies are unlikely
    • Best sources
      • Foods rich in proteins
    • Phosphoric acid intake and bone density
    • UL has been established
  • Body locations
    • More than half is found in the bones
      • Reservoir
    • Muscles and soft tissues
    • Extracellular fluid
  • Roles in body
    • Maintains bone health
    • Part of protein making machinery
    • Necessary for energy metabolism
    • Participates in enzyme systems
    • Catalyst in ATP production
    • Muscle contraction and blood clotting
    • Supports normal function of immune system
  • Intakes
    • Average dietary intake for U.S. adults is below recommendations
    • Hard water contributions
  • Sources
    • Legumes, seeds, and nuts
    • Leafy green vegetables
  • Deficiency
    • Rarely occurs
      • Occurs with diseases
    • Causes tetany and impair central nervous system activity
  • Hypertension
    • Protective factor
  • Toxicity
  • Sources of sulfate
    • Food and beverages
    • Amino acids
      • Methionine
      • Cysteine
  • No recommended intake
    • Normal protein intake
highlight 12

Highlight 12

Osteoporosis and Calcium

  • Osteoporosis becomes apparent in the later years
    • Develops earlier without warning
  • Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in U.S.
    • Burden of disease
bone development and disintegration
Bone development and Disintegration
  • Cortical bone
    • Hard outer shell
    • Gives up calcium to blood
      • Slow and steady rate
  • Trabecular bone
    • Lacy matrix
    • Give up calcium when diet runs short
      • Impacted by day-to-day intake and need for calcium
bone development and disintegration1
Bone development and Disintegration
  • Types of osteoporosis
    • Type I
      • Trabecular bone loss
      • Women are more likely victims
    • Type II
      • Cortical and trabecular bone losses
      • Dowager’s hump
  • DEXA scan
  • Risk factors and protective factors
age and bone calcium
Age and Bone Calcium
  • Two major stages of life
    • Childhood and adolescence
      • Bone-acquiring stage
    • Late adulthood
      • Bone-losing decades
  • Maximizing bone mass
  • Minimizing bone loss
    • Calcium and vitamin D status
gender and hormones
Gender and Hormones
  • Men have greater bone density and smaller losses later in life
  • Women and menopause
    • Estrogen
    • Up to 20% bone loss in 6 to 8 years after menopause
  • Drugs
    • Antiresorptive agents
    • Anabolic agents
genetics and ethnicity
Genetics and Ethnicity
  • Osteoporosis may, in part, be hereditary
    • Exact role of genetics is unclear
  • Ethnicity
    • Groups at high risk
  • Environmental factors influence gene expression
physical activity and body weight
Physical Activity and Body Weight
  • Important factor supporting bone growth during adolescence
  • Muscle strength and bone strength work together
  • Weight training or weight-bearing endurance activities
  • Being overweight may protect bones
    • Risks vs. benefits of being overweight
smoking and alcohol
Smoking and Alcohol
  • Smoking decreases bone density
    • Can be reversed with smoking cessation
      • Benefits seen in 6 weeks
  • Alcohol abuse and osteoporosis
    • Increased level of fractures
  • Moderate alcohol consumption
    • May increase bone mineral density
dietary nutrients
Dietary Nutrients
  • Calcium
    • Adequate levels during growing year
      • Recommended levels
  • Protein
  • Vitamins D and K
  • Vitamins C and A
  • Salt
  • Omega-3 fatty acids
  • Lack of calcium-rich foods
    • Calcium supplement with vitamin D
  • May increase risk of heart attacks
  • Calcium supplement forms
    • Natural products and lead content
  • Questions
    • How much calcium provided?
    • How body absorbs and uses the calcium?