Teaching Methods: Effective Teaching Descriptions and Traits Susan M. Stein, DHEd, MS, BS Pharm, RPh
Faculty Development Outline • Interactive discussions, sharing tips and advice • Five 2-hour sessions + One 6-hour session • Four areas of focus: • Effective teaching, philosophy, myths • Syllabus design: Outcomes for teaching • Communication and learning styles • Active learning strategies, facilitation • Clinical educating: critical skill development • Lessons Learned, Trial and Error, Presentations
Your Expectations • What would you like to get out of this? • Where are you in your quest for effective teaching? • Where are you on your path in academia? Tenure or Term track? • Are you comfortable in your skin? ……………………….Be Here Now……………………………
Objectives • Describe techniques of effective and ineffective teachers • Describe traits of effective and ineffective teachers • Discuss learning and teaching myths and facts • Analyze origin of teaching challenges • Describe teaching roles • Identify maximum impact teaching opportunities
Effective and Ineffective Teaching • Describe an effective teacher and an ineffective teacher in your past. • Did your perception change when you were an undergraduate student? Professional or graduate student? Activity: TPS --- example of each, 2 descriptions
The Wisdom of Others • Bill Gates on creating great teachers: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1lcZbRY_bYs • Steve Spangler http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pcmMaGGQvX0 …and Websites to see… • Parker Palmer http://www.couragerenewal.org/parker/writings • Dr Fox Experiment (1970s) http://www.weirdexperiments.com/05drfox.htm • How to Give A Killer Presentation BNET http://blogs.bnet.com/ceo/?p=1584#comments
What the Best College Teachers Doby Ken Bain • Understand their subjects well • Approach teaching as serious: prepare • Expect “more” from students • “Natural critical learning environment” • Treat students with “simple decency” • Methodical, systematic assessment Bain, K. (2004). What the Best College Teachers Do. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA.
“the most effective speakers used…” • Conversational tone but projected • Spoke clearly but carefully • Pause to let important points land • Moving: continue if started with important point • Gestures larger than life to make a point • Spoke as if they knew and wanted to engage every student…including the back row Bain, K. (2004). What the Best College Teachers Do. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA.
Effective Teacher Traits • Flexible • Organized • Patient • Prepared • Professional • Reflective • Respectful • Responsible • Timely response • Understand the learner • Approachable • Caring • Compassionate • Competent, contemporary • Effective communicator • Enthusiastic • Integrity • Knowledgeable
Activity: Reflect and Resonate • Write down 3 effective teacher traits • Write down 3 ineffective teacher traits
Teaching Philosophy Tidbits • Learner-centered vs. teacher-centered • Praise and process: • “Strategic learners”, extrinsic reward, stimuli • Task praise vs. Person praise • Style: lectures, activities, redundancy, groups • Knowledge vs. Understanding
Student Learning Myths and Truths • Lecture is an ineffective teaching method. • Students learn better in groups. • Students can multitask. • Effective teachers are born: they cannot be trained. http://cfe.unc.edu/pdfs/FYC23.pdf
Is Lecturing Ineffective? (knowledge) Adapted from Bligh, DA. (2000). What’s the use of Lectures? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Group vs. Individual over Time? Adapted from Hsiung, C. 2012. J Engineer Educ
Multitasking: Auditory or Visual or Both Performance HIGHLY EFFECTIVE Audio Text Cognitive Load Visual Text Visual and Audio Text LESS EFFECTIVE Adapted from Kalyugaet al.1999. Appl CognPsych
Lecturing Skills Can be Learned Bligh, DA. (2000). What’s the use of Lectures? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Teaching Challenges and Rewards • Teaching is incredibly difficult: why do we do it? • You are performing…You are a role model • Fear of being incorrect, being judged • Fear of conflict, losing identity • Reward of reaching generations • Reward of the “a-ha!” moment • Reward of affecting change in your profession Palmer, PJ. (2007). The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teachers Life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
More than techniques… “When we frame our talk about teaching only in terms of technique, we may make the conversation "practical" and safe, but we miss the deeper dimensions that could make such talk more real and rewarding to faculty: the challenge of ideas, the exploration of shared practice, the uniqueness of each teacher's genius, the mystery at the heart of the educational exchange.” – Parker Palmer
147 Practical Tips • Be the Expert • Be the Formal Authority • Be a Socializing Agent • Be a Facilitator • Be an Ego Ideal • Be a Person Magnan, R. (1990). 147 Practical Tips for Teaching Professors. Madison; Atwood.
Academe and Curricular Challenges • Program standards, expectations • Academic freedom • Curricular responsibilities: scaffolding, blending, complimenting • Team-teaching • Promotion and Tenure/Extended Term/Etc
Discussion: Buzz Group • Provide a brief description of a moment in teaching that things went so well, you felt you were born to teach. • Provide a moment in teaching when things went so poorly you wished you’d never been born • In groups of 3-4, discuss the positive experience and identify strengths
Summary Check • State one take-away you will try to do and one you will try to avoid in the future when you teach.