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COMMON FEATURES OF SPOKEN LANGUAGES. Arbitrary link of sound and meaning occurs in absence of referent (displacement) small set of phonemes (/e/, /sh/, ..) that carry meaning (duality) large set of morphemes small set of “function” words & affixes large set of “content” words

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common features of spoken languages
COMMON FEATURES OF SPOKEN LANGUAGES
  • Arbitrary link of sound and meaning
  • occurs in absence of referent (displacement)
  • small set of phonemes(/e/, /sh/, ..) that carry meaning (duality)
  • large set of morphemes
    • small set of “function” words & affixes
    • large set of “content” words
  • syntactic rules that specify sequence and constituent structure (regularity)
  • unlimited number of potential sentences(productivity)
    • iteration and recursion
differences among spoken languages
DIFFERENCES AMONG SPOKEN LANGUAGES
  • identity and number of phonemes
    • English has ~ 45 phonemes
    • Russian has ~ 70 phonemes
  • specific syntactic rules
    • e.g., for basic declarative sentence,
      • SVO 35% SOV 44%
      • VSO 19% OVS 0%
  • number of inflections (walk, walking..)
    • Chinese has none
    • Serbo-Croatian has lots
  • total number of morphemes
    • varies with cultural complexity
  • use of intontation (prosody) phonemically
    • Cantonese: “ma, ma ma ma, ma ma.”
anatomical adaptations for spoken language
ANATOMICAL ADAPTATIONSFOR SPOKEN LANGUAGE

Lower larynx lets air through mouth vs. nose

larger nerve for controlling tongue movements

Hypoglossal canal

broca s aphasia
BROCA’S APHASIA
  • damage to inferior left frontal lobe
  • speech is halting and ‘agrammatic’
    • “ah. Monday .. ah..Dad and Paul . .and Dad . . hospital. Two . . ah. .doctors. .and. .ah. .thirty minutes . . and . . yes . . hospital . . and . . Thursday . . . teeth.
  • comprehension impaired for more complex sentences
    • They gave her dog / the biscuits
    • John was hit by Mary
  • speech articulation errors
    • chrysanthemum: “chyrsa. . mum . . mum “
wernicke s aphasia
WERNICKE’S APHASIA
  • damage to left posterior temporal lobe
  • speech may be fluent but meaningless
    • “I called my mother on the television and didn’t understand the door. It wasn’t too breakfast, but they came from far to near.”
  • and contain “neologisms”
    • “ I was just wondering what kind of a hote mone murchin it is.”
  • comprehension often abysmal
  • may be unaware of deficit (anasagnosic)
types of aphasia
TYPES OF APHASIA

Broca’s Left nonfluent speech

Frontal comprehension OK

poor naming &

repetition

Wernicke’s Left fluent, bizarre speech

Temporal poor comprehension

poor naming

good repetition

Conduction arcuate fluent speech

fasciculus good comprehension

good naming

poor repetition

Trans- angular nonfluent speech

Corticalgyrus? Poor comprehension

good naming &

repetition