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## CALCULATIONS

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**CALCULATIONS**CHAPTER 6**CHAPTER OUTLINE**• Numbers • Fractions • Decimal Numbers • Significant Figures • Measurement • Equations & Variables • Ratio & Proportion • Percents & Solutions • Alligation • Powder Volume • Children’s Doses • Calculations for Business • Review**ROMAN NUMERALS**• Positional notation • When the second of two letters has a value equal to or smaller than that of the first, add their values • ixvi = 50 + 10 + 5 + 1 = 66 • When the second of two letters has a value greater than that of the first, subtract the smaller from the larger • xc = 10 subtracted from 100**FRACTIONS**Numerators Denominators Reciprocals Adding and subtracting fractions Multiplying and dividing fractions**DECIMAL NUMBERS**Multiplying decimals Significant figures**SIGNIFICANT FIGURES**• Four rules for assigning significant figures: 1. Digits other than zero are always significant. 2. Final zeros after a decimal point are always significant. 3. Zeros between two other significant digits are always significant. 4. Zeros used only to space the decimal are never significant.**MEASUREMENT**Metric system Avoirdupois system Apothecary system Household units Measuring temperature**RATIO & PROPORTION**A ratio states a relationship between two quantities Two equal ratios form a proportion**PERCENTS & SOLUTIONS**• Percent Weight-to-Volume • Grams per 100 milliliters • Percent Volume-to-Volume • Milliliters per 100 milliliters • Milliequivalents • mEq**POWDER VOLUME**FV = D + PV**CHILDREN’S DOSES**Clark’s Rule Young’s Rule Body Surface Area Body Weight**BUSINESS CALCULATIONS**Selling prices Discounts Gross profit Net profit