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CALCULATIONS

CALCULATIONS

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CALCULATIONS

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  1. CALCULATIONS CHAPTER 6

  2. CHAPTER OUTLINE • Numbers • Fractions • Decimal Numbers • Significant Figures • Measurement • Equations & Variables • Ratio & Proportion • Percents & Solutions • Alligation • Powder Volume • Children’s Doses • Calculations for Business • Review

  3. ROMAN NUMERALS

  4. ROMAN NUMERALS • Positional notation • When the second of two letters has a value equal to or smaller than that of the first, add their values • ixvi = 50 + 10 + 5 + 1 = 66 • When the second of two letters has a value greater than that of the first, subtract the smaller from the larger • xc = 10 subtracted from 100

  5. FRACTIONS Numerators Denominators Reciprocals Adding and subtracting fractions Multiplying and dividing fractions

  6. DECIMAL NUMBERS Multiplying decimals Significant figures

  7. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES • Four rules for assigning significant figures: 1. Digits other than zero are always significant. 2. Final zeros after a decimal point are always significant. 3. Zeros between two other significant digits are always significant. 4. Zeros used only to space the decimal are never significant.

  8. MEASUREMENT Metric system Avoirdupois system Apothecary system Household units Measuring temperature

  9. METRIC SYSTEM LIQUIDS

  10. METRIC SYSTEM SOLIDS

  11. AVOIRDUPOIS SYSTEM

  12. APOTHECARY SYSTEM

  13. HOUSEHOLD UNITS

  14. TEMPERATURE

  15. RATIO & PROPORTION A ratio states a relationship between two quantities Two equal ratios form a proportion

  16. PERCENTS & SOLUTIONS • Percent Weight-to-Volume • Grams per 100 milliliters • Percent Volume-to-Volume • Milliliters per 100 milliliters • Milliequivalents • mEq

  17. MILLIEQUIVALENTS

  18. COMMON ELECTROLYTES

  19. ALLIGATION

  20. POWDER VOLUME FV = D + PV

  21. CHILDREN’S DOSES Clark’s Rule Young’s Rule Body Surface Area Body Weight

  22. BUSINESS CALCULATIONS Selling prices Discounts Gross profit Net profit