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2.0 Natural gas processing natural gas is gaseous form of petroleum - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Reserves at Year End:. Natural Gas:. 1.6 trillion m 3 (56.5 trillion ft 3 ). Production:. Natural Gas:. 484 million m 3 /d (17.1 billion ft 3 /d). Prices:. Natural Gas – Nymex Henry Hub. $8,300 US$/MJ (8.77 US$/mmbtu). Exports:. Natural Gas:. 289 million m 3 /d (10.2 billion ft 3 /d).

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slide1

Reserves at Year End:

Natural Gas:

1.6 trillion m3 (56.5 trillion ft3)

Production:

Natural Gas:

484 million m3/d (17.1 billion ft3/d)

Prices:

Natural Gas – Nymex Henry Hub

$8,300 US$/MJ (8.77 US$/mmbtu)

Exports:

Natural Gas:

289 million m3/d (10.2 billion ft3/d)

Share of Primary Energy Consumption (2000):

Natural Gas:

30%

Crude Oil:

38%

Coal:

11%

Electricity – Hydro:

10%

Electricity – Nuclear:

3%

Other:

10%

  • 2.0Natural gas processing
  • natural gas is gaseous form of petroleum
    • mostly methane (C1), some ethane(C2), propane (C3), butanes (C4), pentanes (C5), hexanes (C6) and C7+
slide2

C1 , C2, H2O

Dehydration/Compression

C1 , C2, H2S, CO2 etc..

Acid Gas Removal

H2S, CO2

HC, SO2, CO2

Sulphur Recovery

Inlet Separators

S

condensate (C2-C5+)

Condensate Stabilization

Propane/Butane Processing

e.g. deep cut, turboexpansion

C3 , C4

C5+

Simplified PFD for Sour Gas Processing Plant

slide3

Point of processing is to meet pipeline/storage/use specifications

Pipeline Specification (Typical)

Oxygen 10 ppm

Nitrogen 3 %

CO2 2-3% pipeline to 100 ppm for LPG plant feed

H2S low as 4 ppm (0.25grains/100 scf) for pipeline higher for fuel gas

CS2, COS, RSH 20 grains/100 scf

Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Specifications:

H2S, Sulfurs

Pass Copper Strip, ASTM D-2420

CO2

varies – 0.35 LVP of Ethane

content 1000 ppm orless, depends on application

slide4

gas

from

wells

Acid Gas Injection

acid gas

Dehydration

Dewpoint Control and Compression

Gas Sweetening

light gases

Inlet Separation

natural gas

to market

C5+

C2-C5+

Condensate Stabilization

Simplified PFD for Sable Island

slide5

C1, C2

some C3-C4

C1, C2

some C3-C4

+H2O

dehy

comp

Amine plant

C1, C2

some C3-C4

+contaminants

SO2, CO2, CO etc..

acid gas

Claus Plant

Inlet Sep

S

C5+,C3-C4

C3-C4

Condensate stabilization/ fractionation

C5+

Sour Gas Plant in AB

slide6

2.1 Auxiliary Equipment

a) fired equipment

- heat exchangers throughout plant, furnaces used in utility and SRU

2 types (figure 8-2)

i.direct fired

- combustion gases heat process stream which is contained in pipes

ii.fire tube

- combustion gases are surrounded by a liquid that either is used as a heat transfer medium or is the process stream itself

application characteristics

direct firedregeneration gas heaters more equip/controls

amine reboilers higher ηthermal

lower space forced/natural combust

firetubeline heaters low heat duty

C3+ vaporizers skid mount

gly/am reboilers forced/natural combust

low P steam gen less hot spot

slide7

b) HE

  • - discussed in section 1.3
  • c) cooling towers
  • detail in section 1.3
  • purpose cool process water by ambient air  achieved by maximize evaporation of H2O in droplets exposed to maximum air flow over longest time (picture)
  • mech draft – fans move air and natural draft – use density
  • d) pumps/turbines
  • - mostly centrifugal type due to lower cost, smaller space, and low maintenance
  • e) compressors/expanders
  • compressors used inlet and sales gas to boost pressure
    • + displacement
    • dynamic
    • thermal
slide8

f) refrigeration

  • used in:
    • NGL/LPG recovery
    • HC dewpoint control
    • reflux condensation for light HC fractions
    • LNG plants
  • - refrigerant type selected by T requirements, availability, economics, previous experience
  • e.g. natural gas plant may use C2 and C3 while due availability and economics olefin plant may use ethylene and propylene
  •  i.mech refrigeration
  • most common
  • simple cycle of expansion, evaporation, compression, condensation
  • Absorption Refrigeration
  • if low cost of n.gas, low level heat source, and electricity rates
slide10

2.2 Inlet Separators

  • discussed fractionators in general, separator is like one stage of a fractionator where adjust P of incoming gas to separate v and l
  • 4 major sections
    • primary section – sep main portion of free l by abrupt change in momentum or direction (nozzle)
    • secondary or gravity sectn – use gravity to enhance sep of entrained droplets
    • gas moves at low velocity w/ little turbulence
    • coalescing sectn – coalescer (wire, mesh, vane elements, cyclonic passage) or mist extractor
    • removes droplets can’t be sep by gravity by impingement on surface
    • limits l carryover into gas (<0.013 mL/m3)
    • sump/l collection – recover l from ii and iii – provides surge V for degassing a slug catching
  • b) orientation
  • vertical – high v:l ratio or total gas V low
  • horizontal – used large V total fluids and large amounts of dissolved gas in l
  • spherical – occasionally used where high P and compact size needed, l volumes are small
  • new are small valve types on platforms
slide12

2.5 Fractionation

  • separate gas mixtures into individual products
  • in next section discuss bulk separation of NGLs from gas which differs from this discussion
  • absorption -type units also used  use trays/packing
  • types of fractionators at gas plants
  • demethanizer – product bottom is C2+, OH is C1
  • deethanizer - product bottom is C3+, OH is C1/C2
    • commercial C3, C3/C4 (LPG), C4, C4/gasoline, natural gasoline

e.g. at gas plant in AB deethan run depending price butane

  • depropanizer
  • debutanizer
slide15

b) Product specs

  • material balance around column is 1st step in design calcs  need to assume product stream compositions
  • defined in terms of
    • % recovery of component in OH or bottom OR
    • composition of component in either product OR
    • specify physical properties (Pvap) in either product
  • c) design
  • in fractionation there usually 2 components which are key in separation
    • lightest component in bottom (LK)
    • heaviest component in OH (HK)
  • these components are adjacent to each other in volatility
  • in hand calcs make the assumption all components heavier than than heaviest in OH are in bottoms