First Billion: 1804 Second Billion: 1927 (123 yrs) Third Billion: 1960 (33 yrs) Fourth Billion: 1974 (14 yrs) Fifth Billion: 1987 (13 yrs) Sixth Billion: 1999 (11 yrs) Accelerated World Population Growth
Changing Face of Cross Country Immigration • No more virgin land to occupy • Reverse colonial population migration • Migration from Low to Medium, High Income Countries • Employment Based Migration • ANY MORE LAND?
Malthus vs Condorcet • Malthus: Population will outgrow food supplies (geometric growth vs arithmetic growth) • Condorcet: Reasoned human action will reduce population, reduce waste, and maintain food supply
Paul Ehrlich vs Julian Simon • Ehrlich: Population is outgrowing earth’s sustainable capacity • Simon: Population growth not problem, but contributes to economic develop-ment; Need for Individual Economic Freedom
Population: Other Considerations • Epidemiological Transition • Demographic Transition • Hidden Population Momentum • Role of TECHNOLOGY • Role of CULTURE, RELIGION
Population Problems • Poverty (Food Problem?) (Famines are fewer, though) • Standard of Living • Environmental Consequences of Consumption • Overcrowding
Population Growth: Solutions • Override (Forced government programs to reduce population) • Collaboration (Voluntary programs and incentive based family planning programs) • Economic Development (higher GNP per capita) • Social Development (better education, health facilities, gender equity) • Family Planning Programs (sterilization, promotion of contraceptive use)