ME 381R Lecture 2 Particle Transport Theory in Thermal Fluid Systems: Level 1—Kinetic Theory

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# ME 381R Lecture 2 Particle Transport Theory in Thermal Fluid Systems: Level 1—Kinetic Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

##### ME 381R Lecture 2 Particle Transport Theory in Thermal Fluid Systems: Level 1—Kinetic Theory

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1. ME 381R Lecture 2 Particle Transport Theory in Thermal Fluid Systems: Level 1—Kinetic Theory Dr. Li Shi Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 www.me.utexas.edu/~lishi lishi@mail.utexas.edu

2. Nanotransistors Ju and Goodson, APL 74, 3005 IBM SOI Chip Lines: BTE results Hot spots!

3. Microscopic Origins of Thermal Fluid Transport --The Particle Nature MaterialsDominant energy carriers Gases: Molecules Metals: Electrons Insulators: Phonons (crystal vibration) L Hot Cold In micro-nano scale thermal fluid systems, often L < mean free path of collision of energy carriers & Fourier’s law breaks down  Particle transport theories or molecular dynamics methods

4. Mean Free Path for Intermolecular Collision for Gases D D Total Length Traveled = L Average Distance between Collisions, mc = L/(#of collisions) Total Collision Volume Swept = pD2L Mean Free Path Number Density of Molecules = n s: collision cross-sectional area Total number of molecules encountered in swept collision volume ~ npD2L

5. Mean Free Path for Gas Molecules kB: Boltzmann constant 1.38 x 10-23 J/K Number Density of Molecules from Ideal Gas Law: n = P/kBT Mean Free Path: Typical Numbers: Diameter of Molecules, D  2 Å = 2 x10-10 m Collision Cross-section: s  1.3 x 10-19 m2 Mean Free Path at Atmospheric Pressure: At 1 Torr pressure, mc 200 mm; at 1 mTorr, mc 20 cm

6. Effective Mean Free Path Wall b: boundary separation Wall Effective Mean Free Path:

7. q dW y f x Kinetic Theory of Energy Transport Cold Net Energy Flux u(z+z) z + z  q qz z through Taylor expansion of u z - z u(z-z) z Hot Solid Angle, dW = sinqdqdf See handout for detailed derivation

8. Averaging over all the solid angles Assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium: u = u(T) Thermal Conductivity

9. Thermal Conductivity of Gases Heat Capacity [J/m3-K] Monoatomic gases: Diatomic gases: Vx=Vsinqcosf Vy=Vsinqsinf Vz=Vcosq Velocity: Vz q V dW Vy f Vx

10. Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution V Most probabale Mean speed Root-mean-square Vrms Vm Vmp Most probable speed: Mean Speed: Root-Mean-Square Speed Used for thermal conductivity calculations

11. V T1 T2 > T1 Increasing Temperature Speed of helium atoms at 0 oC Mass, m = 1.66 x 10-27 (kg/proton) x 4 (protons) = 6.65 x 10-27 kg

12. Thermal Conductivity y depends on the number of atoms in the molecule If mean free path is limited by intermolecular collision thermal conductivity is independent of number density and therefore independent of pressure If mean free path is affected by boundary scattering, thermal conductivity will depend on pressure. (Saved as a future homework problem)

13. Questions • Kinetic theory is valid for particles: can electrons and • crystal vibrations be considered particles? • If so, what are C, v,  for electrons and crystal vibrations?