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Outline. 1. The Ionic Basis of the Resting Membrane Potential 2. Four Factors Determine the Ionic Distribution that Underlies the Resting Membrane Potential a. Differential Permeability of the Membrane b. Sodium-Potassium Pumps c. Diffusion (Random Motion) d. Electrostatic Pressure

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • 1. The Ionic Basis of the Resting Membrane Potential
  • 2. Four Factors Determine the Ionic Distribution that Underlies the Resting Membrane
  • Potential
    • a. Differential Permeability of the Membrane
    • b. Sodium-Potassium Pumps
    • c. Diffusion (Random Motion)
    • d. Electrostatic Pressure
  • 3. Postsynaptic Potentials
  • 4. Generation of Action Potentials
  • 5. Ionic Events Underlying Action Potentials
  • 6. Conduction of Action Potentials
    • a. Action Potentials are Nondecremental and Slow
    • b. Myelin Increases the Speed of Conduction
synaptic transmission
Synaptic Transmission
  • Outline:
  • 1. Synaptic Contacts and Transmission
    • a. Structure of Synapses
    • b. Synthesis, Packing & Transport of Neurotransmitter Molecules
    • c. Release of Neurotransmitter Molecules
    • d. Activation of Receptors
    • e. Reuptake, Degradation and Recycling
  • 2. Neurotransmitters and Receptors
    • a. Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
    • b. Monoamine Neurotransmitters
    • c. Acetylcholine
    • d. Soluble Gas Neurotransmitters
    • e. Neuropeptide Neurotransmitters
  • 3. Pharmacology of Synaptic Transmission
agonists
Agonists
  • Increase synthesis of NTs
    • Tryptophan (turkey; warm milk)
    • L-Dopa
  • Block enzymes that destroy NTs
    • MAO inhibitors (monoamine oxidase inhibitors)
  • Increase release from terminal buttons
    • Amphetamine – reverse transporter
    • Black widow venom – promotes release of ACh by interacting with the releasing proteins on presynaptic membrane
  • Block Autoreceptor
    • Research drugs (couldn’t find any interesting ones)
  • Bind to post synaptic receptor and cause effects, or increase effectiveness of NT
    • Benzodiazepines = Valium
  • Block deactivation
    • SSRI = Prozac; Zoloft
    • SNRI = Effexor; Cymbalta
    • Cocaine
antagonists
Antagonists
  • Blocks synthesis of NTs
    • AMPT – blocks production of DA – can increase symptoms of depression in lab.
  • Blocks storage/increases destruction of NTs
    • Reserpine Blocks storage of monamines; used to treat high blood pressure; depression can be a side effect
  • Prevent release of NTs
    • Botulinum Toxin - Botulism (food poisoning). This toxin prevents the release of Ach leading to paralysis and potentially death
      • Small doses prevent wrinkles = Botox
  • Activate autoreceptor
    • Aripiprazole – Inhibits DA release by activating the autoreceptor – used as an antipsychotic
  • Block receptor
    • Some antipsychotic drugs. Drugs that block serotonin receptors are used to treat the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (social problems, flattened affect).l