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Creating life long learners. David Taylor School of Medical Education Liverpool University. Who thinks they are life long learners?. What made you one? a person an experience. Piaget. Intelligence is knowing what to do even when you don't know the rules. Dreyfus (Berkley).

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creating life long learners

Creating life long learners

David Taylor

School of Medical Education

Liverpool University

who thinks they are life long learners

Who thinks they are life long learners?

What made you one?

a person

an experience

  • Intelligence is knowing what to do even when you don't know the rules
dreyfus berkley
Dreyfus (Berkley)
  • need to learn to learn
  • a university is a community of learners
  • “Mood in the Room”
learning styles
Learning Styles
  • Everyone has their own preferred learning style
  • But they can only find it by experience
  • It follows that we need to provide our students with as many different learning experiences as possible.
dewey 1933
Dewey (1933)
  • Reflection is…
  • A purposeful form of thought provoked in learners when they recognize that their understanding is incomplete.
  • Narratives destabilise comfortable worlds and offer the possibility of empathetically understanding other lives
    • Grateful thanks to Lindsey Nicholls who spoke at the SAAHE conference in UWC May 2006
reflection vs reflexion
Reflection vs reflexion
  • Reflection = mirror
    • Inner resonance
  • Reflexion = window
    • think about
  • To be reflexive = a capacity to doubt oneself
bateson s hierarchy of learning
Bateson’s hierarchy of learning
  • Level 0 habit
  • Level 1 trial and error
  • Level 2 self fulfilling prophesy
  • Level 3 responsibility
          • For your blind spots
in order to reflect
In order to reflect
  • 3 things are needed
  • something to reflect on
  • reflection time & modelling
  • motivation
  • Albanese,2006,Medical Education 40;288-290
something to reflect on
something to reflect on
  • Big picture
  • Boundaries of knowledge
vygotsky c 1928
Vygotsky (c. 1928)
  • Zone of proximal development




  • intrinsic is not always enough
  • (Liverpool, Manchester vs. Cardiff...)
  • Not a surprise - tendency towards strategic learning
how to encourage
How to encourage
  • Journals & or small groups are neither necessary nor sufficient
  • The single biggest influence on me was my biology teacher at school who used to ask me how I got to the answer.
My two main questions as a PBL-facilitator
  • 1) what is the evidence for that?
  • 2) show us your working
student needs
Student needs
  • Dedication
  • Self reliance
  • Hard work
  • Time
  • Attention to detail
  • A role model