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1. The Human Body: An Orientation. The Human Body—An Orientation. Anatomy Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts Physiology Study of how the body and its parts work or function. Anatomy—Levels of Study. Gross anatomy Large structures Easily observable. Parotid gland.

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slide1

1

The Human Body: An Orientation

the human body an orientation
The Human Body—An Orientation

Anatomy

Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts

Physiology

Study of how the body and its parts work or function

anatomy levels of study
Anatomy—Levels of Study

Gross anatomy

Large structures

Easily observable

slide4

Parotid gland

Mouth (oral cavity)

Sublingual gland

Tongue

Salivary glands

Submandibular

gland

Pharynx

Esophagus

Stomach

Pancreas

(Spleen)

Liver

Gallbladder

Transverse

colon

Duodenum

Descending

colon

Small intestine

Jejunum

lleum

Ascending

colon

Large intestine

Cecum

Sigmoid colon

Rectum

Appendix

Anus

Anal canal

Figure 14.1

anatomy levels of study1
Anatomy—Levels of Study

Microscopic anatomy

Structures cannot be seen with the naked eye

Structures can only be viewed with a microscope

slide6

Gastric pits

Surface

epithelium

Gastric pit

Pyloric

sphincter

Mucous

neck cells

Parietal cells

Gastric gland

Gastric

glands

Chief cells

(c)

Figure 14.4c

slide7

Pepsinogen

Pepsin

HCl

Parietal cells

Chief cells

Enteroendocrine

cell

(d)

Figure 14.4d

slide8

Levels of Organization of a Complex Organism

7. ORGANISM

6. ORGAN SYSTEMS

5. ORGANS

4. TISSUES

3. CELLS

2. MOLECULES

1. ATOMS

slide9

Molecules

Smooth muscle cell

2

Cellular level

Cells are made up of molecules.

Atoms

1

Chemical level

Atoms combine to

form molecules.

Smooth

muscle

tissue

Blood

vessels

3

Tissue level

Tissues consist of similar types of cells.

Heart

Epithelial

tissue

Smooth

muscle

tissue

Blood

vessel

(organ)

6

Organismal level

Human organisms are made up of many organ

systems.

Cardio–

vascular

system

Connective

tissue

4

Organ level

Organs are made up of different types of tissues.

5

Organ system level

Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely.

Figure 1.1

organ system overview
Organ System Overview

Integumentary

Forms the external body covering

Protects deeper tissue from injury

Helps regulate body temperature

Location of cutaneous nerve receptors

skin

organ system overview1
Organ System Overview

Skeletal

Protects and supports body organs

Provides muscle attachment for movement

Site of blood cell formation

Stores minerals

CARTILAGE

JOINT

BONES

organ system overview2
Organ System Overview

Muscular

Produces movement

Maintains posture

Produces heat

SKELETAL

MUSCLES

organ system overview3
Organ System Overview

Nervous

Fast-acting control system

Responds to internal and external change

Activates muscles and glands

BRAIN

SENSORY

RECEPTORS

SPINAL CORD

NERVES

slide20

Pineal gland

Pituitary gland

Thyroid gland

(parathyroid glands

on posterior aspect)

Thymus gland

Adrenal glands

Pancreas

Testis (male)

Ovary (female)

Figure 1.2e

organ system overview4
Organ System Overview

Endocrine

Secretes regulatory hormones

Growth

Reproduction

Metabolism

organ system overview5
Organ System Overview

Cardiovascular

Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

Nutrients

Wastes

HEART

BLOOD

VESSELS

organ system overview6
Organ System Overview

Lymphatic

Returns fluids to blood vessels

Cleanses the blood

Involved in immunity

LYMPH NODES

LYMPHATIC

VESSELS

slide24

Nasal

cavity

Pharynx

  • Respiratory
    • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
    • Removes carbon dioxide

Larynx

Trachea

Bronchus

Left lung

Figure 1.2h

slide25

Oral cavity

Esophagus

Stomach

Small

intestine

Large

intestine

Rectum

Anus

Figure 1.2i

organ system overview7
Organ System Overview

Digestive

Breaks down food

Allows for nutrient absorption into blood

Eliminates indigestible material as feces

slide27

Kidney

Ureter

Urinary

bladder

Urethra

Figure 1.2j

organ system overview8
Organ System Overview

Urinary

Eliminates nitrogenous wastes

Maintains acid-base balance

Regulates water and electrolytes

slide29

Mammary

glands

(in breasts)

Prostate

gland

Seminal

vesicles

Uterine

tube

Ovary

Uterus

Vas

deferens

Penis

Vagina

Testis

Scrotum

Figure 1.2k–l

organ system overview9
Reproductive

Produces offspring

Testes

produce sperm and male hormone

Ovaries

produce eggs and female hormones

Organ System Overview
slide31

Respiratory systemTakes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide

Digestive systemTakes in nutrients, breaks them down, and eliminates unabsorbed matter (feces)

O2

CO2

Food

Cardiovascular system

Via the blood, distributes oxygen and nutrients to all body cells and delivers wastes and carbondioxide to disposal organs

What does this slide represent?

Blood

CO2

O2

Heart

Urinary system Eliminates nitrogen-containing wastes and excess ions

Nutrients

Interstitial fluid

Nutrients and wastes pass between blood and cells via the interstitial fluid

Integumentary systemProtects the body as a whole from the external environment

Feces

Urine

necessary life functions
Necessary Life Functions

Maintain boundaries

Movement

Locomotion

Movement of substances

Responsiveness

Ability to sense changes and react

Digestion

Breakdown and absorption of nutrients

necessary life functions1
Necessary Life Functions

Metabolism—chemical reactions within the body

Break down complex molecules into smaller ones

Build larger molecules from smaller ones

Produces energy

Regulated by hormones

Excretion

Eliminates waste from metabolic reactions

Wastes may be removed in urine or feces

necessary life functions2
Necessary Life Functions

Reproduction

Occurs on cellular level or organismal level

Produces future generation

Growth

Increases cell size and number of cells

survival needs
Survival Needs

Nutrients

Chemicals for energy and cell building

Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals

Oxygen

Required for chemical reactions

survival needs1
Survival Needs

Water

60 to 80 percent of body weight

Most abundant chemical in the human body

Provides for metabolic reaction

Stable body temperature

37°C (98°F)

Atmospheric pressure

Must be appropriate for gas exchange

homeostasis
Homeostasis

Homeostasis—maintenance of a stable internal environment

A dynamic state of equilibrium

Necessary for normal body functioning and to sustain life

Homeostatic imbalance

A disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease

how is h omeostasis maintained
How is homeostasis maintained?

The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems

slide39

IMBALANCE

Stimulus

produces

change in

variable.

1

VARIABLE (in homeostasis)

IMBALANCE

Figure 1.4, step 1

slide40

Receptor

Receptor detects change.

2

IMBALANCE

Stimulus

produces

change in

variable.

1

VARIABLE (in homeostasis)

IMBALANCE

Figure 1.4, step 2

slide41

Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center.

3

Control

Center

Afferent

pathway

Receptor

Receptor detects change.

2

IMBALANCE

Stimulus

produces

change in

variable.

1

VARIABLE (in homeostasis)

IMBALANCE

Figure 1.4, step 3

slide42

4

Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector.

Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center.

3

Control

Center

Efferent

pathway

Afferent

pathway

Receptor

Effector

Receptor detects change.

2

IMBALANCE

Stimulus

produces

change in

variable.

1

VARIABLE (in homeostasis)

IMBALANCE

Figure 1.4, step 4

slide43

4

Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector.

Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center.

3

Control

Center

Efferent

pathway

Afferent

pathway

Receptor

Effector

Receptor detects change.

2

5

Response

of effector feeds

back to reduce

the effect of

stimulus and

returns variable

to homeostatic level.

IMBALANCE

Stimulus

produces

change in

variable.

1

VARIABLE (in homeostasis)

IMBALANCE

Figure 1.4, step 5

feedback mechanisms
Feedback Mechanisms

Negative feedback

Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms

Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its intensity

Works like a household thermostat

feedback mechanisms1
Feedback Mechanisms

Positive feedback

Increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther

In the body this only occurs in blood clotting and during the birth of a baby

the language of anatomy
The Language of Anatomy

Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding

Exact terms are used for

Position

Direction

Regions

Structures

regional terms
Regional Terms

Anterior body landmarks

slide48

Cephalic

Frontal

Orbital

Upper limb

Nasal

Acromial

Buccal

Deltoid

Oral

Brachial (arm)

Mental

Antecubital

Cervical

Thoracic

Antebrachial

Sternal

(forearm)

Axillary

Carpal (wrist)

Abdominal

Umbilical

Pelvic

Manus (hand)

Inguinal

(groin)

Digital

Lower limb

Coxal (hip)

Femoral (thigh)

Pubic (genital)

Patellar

Crural (leg)

KEY:

Fibular

Pedal (foot)

Thorax

Tarsal (ankle)

Abdomen

Back (Dorsum)

Digital

(a) Anterior/Ventral

Figure 1.5a

regional terms1
Regional Terms

Posterior body landmarks

slide50

Cephalic

Occipital (back

of head)

Upper limb

Acromial

Cervical

Brachial (arm)

Olecranal

Back (dorsal)

Scapular

Antebrachial

(forearm)

Vertebral

Lumbar

Sacral

Manus (hand)

Digital

Gluteal

Femoral (thigh)

Popliteal

Sural (calf)

KEY:

Fibular

Thorax

Pedal (foot)

Abdomen

Calcaneal

Back (Dorsum)

Plantar

(b) Posterior/Dorsal

Figure 1.5b

slide52

Superior (cranial or cephalad): toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above

Inferior (caudal): away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below

Table 1.1

slide53

Ventral (anterior): toward or at the front of the body; in front of

Dorsal (posterior): toward or at the backside of the body; behind

Table 1.1

slide54

Medial: toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of

Lateral: away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of

Intermediate: between a more medial and a more lateral structure

Table 1.1

slide55

Proximal: close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment to a limb to the body trunk

Distal: farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

Table 1.1

slide56

Superficial: toward or at the body surface

Deep: away from the body surface; more internal

Table 1.1

body planes and sections
Body Planes and Sections

A sagittal section

divides the body (or organ) into left and right parts.

A median, or midsagittal,

section divides the body (or organ) into equal left and right parts.

A frontal, or coronal,

section divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts.

A transverse, or cross,

section divides the body (or organ) into superior and inferior parts.

slide58

(b) Frontal (coronal) plane

(a) Median (midsagittal)

(c) Transverse plane

Vertebral

column

Spinal

cord

Right

lung

Left

lung

Heart

Liver

Aorta

Spleen

Rectum

Intestines

Liver

Stomach

Spleen

Stomach

Subcutaneous

fat layer

Figure 1.6

body cavities
Body Cavities

Dorsal body cavity (2)

Cranial cavity houses the brain

Spinal cavity houses the spinal cord

Ventral body cavity (2) Separated by?

Thoracic cavity houses heart, lungs, and others

Abdominopelvic cavity houses digestive system and most urinary system organs

slide60

Cranial

cavity

Thoracic

cavity

Diaphragm

Abdominal

cavity

Spinal

cavity

Abdominopelvic

cavity

Pelvic

cavity

KEY:

Dorsal body cavity

Ventral body cavity

Figure 1.7

slide61

BODY QUADRANTS

ABDOMINAL CAVITY IS DIVIDED INTO 4 SECTIONS

URQ

ULQ

LRQ

LLQ

slide62

Right upper

quadrant

(RUQ)

Left upper

quadrant

(LUQ)

Right lower

quadrant

(RLQ)

Left lower

quadrant

(LLQ)

Figure 1.8

slide63

BODY REGIONS

Diaphragm

Liver

Stomach

Right

hypo-

chondriac

region

Left

hypo-

chondriac

region

Transverse

colon of large

intestine

Gallbladder

Epigastric

region

Ascending

colon of large

intestine

Descending

colon of large

intestine

Left

lumbar

region

Right

lumbar

region

Umbilical

region

Small intestine

Initial part of

sigmoid colon

Cecum

Right iliac

(inguinal)

region

Hypogastric

(pubic)

region

Left iliac

(inguinal)

region

Appendix

Urinary

bladder

(a) Nine regions delineated by four planes

(b) Anterior view of the nine regions

showing the superficial organs

Figure 1.9a-b