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The Human Body: An Orientation PowerPoint Presentation
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The Human Body: An Orientation

The Human Body: An Orientation

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The Human Body: An Orientation

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  1. 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

  2. The Human Body—An Orientation Anatomy Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts Physiology Study of how the body and its parts work or function

  3. Anatomy—Levels of Study Gross anatomy Large structures Easily observable

  4. Parotid gland Mouth (oral cavity) Sublingual gland Tongue Salivary glands Submandibular gland Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Pancreas (Spleen) Liver Gallbladder Transverse colon Duodenum Descending colon Small intestine Jejunum lleum Ascending colon Large intestine Cecum Sigmoid colon Rectum Appendix Anus Anal canal Figure 14.1

  5. Anatomy—Levels of Study Microscopic anatomy Structures cannot be seen with the naked eye Structures can only be viewed with a microscope

  6. Gastric pits Surface epithelium Gastric pit Pyloric sphincter Mucous neck cells Parietal cells Gastric gland Gastric glands Chief cells (c) Figure 14.4c

  7. Pepsinogen Pepsin HCl Parietal cells Chief cells Enteroendocrine cell (d) Figure 14.4d

  8. Levels of Organization of a Complex Organism 7. ORGANISM 6. ORGAN SYSTEMS 5. ORGANS 4. TISSUES 3. CELLS 2. MOLECULES 1. ATOMS

  9. Molecules Smooth muscle cell 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Smooth muscle tissue Blood vessels 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Heart Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Blood vessel (organ) 6 Organismal level Human organisms are made up of many organ systems. Cardio– vascular system Connective tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Figure 1.1

  10. Figure 1.1, step 1

  11. Figure 1.1, step 2

  12. Figure 1.1, step 3

  13. Figure 1.1, step 4

  14. Figure 1.1, step 5

  15. Figure 1.1, step 6

  16. Organ System Overview Integumentary Forms the external body covering Protects deeper tissue from injury Helps regulate body temperature Location of cutaneous nerve receptors skin

  17. Organ System Overview Skeletal Protects and supports body organs Provides muscle attachment for movement Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals CARTILAGE JOINT BONES

  18. Organ System Overview Muscular Produces movement Maintains posture Produces heat SKELETAL MUSCLES

  19. Organ System Overview Nervous Fast-acting control system Responds to internal and external change Activates muscles and glands BRAIN SENSORY RECEPTORS SPINAL CORD NERVES

  20. Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland (parathyroid glands on posterior aspect) Thymus gland Adrenal glands Pancreas Testis (male) Ovary (female) Figure 1.2e

  21. Organ System Overview Endocrine Secretes regulatory hormones Growth Reproduction Metabolism

  22. Organ System Overview Cardiovascular Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nutrients Wastes HEART BLOOD VESSELS

  23. Organ System Overview Lymphatic Returns fluids to blood vessels Cleanses the blood Involved in immunity LYMPH NODES LYMPHATIC VESSELS

  24. Nasal cavity Pharynx • Respiratory • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen • Removes carbon dioxide Larynx Trachea Bronchus Left lung Figure 1.2h

  25. Oral cavity Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus Figure 1.2i

  26. Organ System Overview Digestive Breaks down food Allows for nutrient absorption into blood Eliminates indigestible material as feces

  27. Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra Figure 1.2j

  28. Organ System Overview Urinary Eliminates nitrogenous wastes Maintains acid-base balance Regulates water and electrolytes

  29. Mammary glands (in breasts) Prostate gland Seminal vesicles Uterine tube Ovary Uterus Vas deferens Penis Vagina Testis Scrotum Figure 1.2k–l

  30. Reproductive Produces offspring Testes produce sperm and male hormone Ovaries produce eggs and female hormones Organ System Overview

  31. Respiratory systemTakes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide Digestive systemTakes in nutrients, breaks them down, and eliminates unabsorbed matter (feces) O2 CO2 Food Cardiovascular system Via the blood, distributes oxygen and nutrients to all body cells and delivers wastes and carbondioxide to disposal organs What does this slide represent? Blood CO2 O2 Heart Urinary system Eliminates nitrogen-containing wastes and excess ions Nutrients Interstitial fluid Nutrients and wastes pass between blood and cells via the interstitial fluid Integumentary systemProtects the body as a whole from the external environment Feces Urine

  32. Necessary Life Functions Maintain boundaries Movement Locomotion Movement of substances Responsiveness Ability to sense changes and react Digestion Breakdown and absorption of nutrients

  33. Necessary Life Functions Metabolism—chemical reactions within the body Break down complex molecules into smaller ones Build larger molecules from smaller ones Produces energy Regulated by hormones Excretion Eliminates waste from metabolic reactions Wastes may be removed in urine or feces

  34. Necessary Life Functions Reproduction Occurs on cellular level or organismal level Produces future generation Growth Increases cell size and number of cells

  35. Survival Needs Nutrients Chemicals for energy and cell building Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals Oxygen Required for chemical reactions

  36. Survival Needs Water 60 to 80 percent of body weight Most abundant chemical in the human body Provides for metabolic reaction Stable body temperature 37°C (98°F) Atmospheric pressure Must be appropriate for gas exchange

  37. Homeostasis Homeostasis—maintenance of a stable internal environment A dynamic state of equilibrium Necessary for normal body functioning and to sustain life Homeostatic imbalance A disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease

  38. How is homeostasis maintained? The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems

  39. IMBALANCE Stimulus produces change in variable. 1 VARIABLE (in homeostasis) IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 1

  40. Receptor Receptor detects change. 2 IMBALANCE Stimulus produces change in variable. 1 VARIABLE (in homeostasis) IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 2

  41. Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. 3 Control Center Afferent pathway Receptor Receptor detects change. 2 IMBALANCE Stimulus produces change in variable. 1 VARIABLE (in homeostasis) IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 3

  42. 4 Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. 3 Control Center Efferent pathway Afferent pathway Receptor Effector Receptor detects change. 2 IMBALANCE Stimulus produces change in variable. 1 VARIABLE (in homeostasis) IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 4

  43. 4 Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. 3 Control Center Efferent pathway Afferent pathway Receptor Effector Receptor detects change. 2 5 Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level. IMBALANCE Stimulus produces change in variable. 1 VARIABLE (in homeostasis) IMBALANCE Figure 1.4, step 5

  44. Feedback Mechanisms Negative feedback Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its intensity Works like a household thermostat

  45. Feedback Mechanisms Positive feedback Increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther In the body this only occurs in blood clotting and during the birth of a baby

  46. The Language of Anatomy Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding Exact terms are used for Position Direction Regions Structures

  47. Regional Terms Anterior body landmarks

  48. Cephalic Frontal Orbital Upper limb Nasal Acromial Buccal Deltoid Oral Brachial (arm) Mental Antecubital Cervical Thoracic Antebrachial Sternal (forearm) Axillary Carpal (wrist) Abdominal Umbilical Pelvic Manus (hand) Inguinal (groin) Digital Lower limb Coxal (hip) Femoral (thigh) Pubic (genital) Patellar Crural (leg) KEY: Fibular Pedal (foot) Thorax Tarsal (ankle) Abdomen Back (Dorsum) Digital (a) Anterior/Ventral Figure 1.5a

  49. Regional Terms Posterior body landmarks

  50. Cephalic Occipital (back of head) Upper limb Acromial Cervical Brachial (arm) Olecranal Back (dorsal) Scapular Antebrachial (forearm) Vertebral Lumbar Sacral Manus (hand) Digital Gluteal Femoral (thigh) Popliteal Sural (calf) KEY: Fibular Thorax Pedal (foot) Abdomen Calcaneal Back (Dorsum) Plantar (b) Posterior/Dorsal Figure 1.5b