Human Geography. Chapter 5. Section 1: Population Geography. Population Geographers. Study the relationship between populations and their environment. They use maps, graphs, population pyramids, and spatial perspective to study population patterns and trends.
Culture: all the features of a people’s way of life. It is learned and passed down by teaching, example, and imitation.
Aspects of culture include (but are not limited to): language, religion, architecture, economics, relationships, food, government, beliefs, technologies, skills, etc.
What is part of your culture?
Culture Trait: activities and behaviors that people often take part in.
Culture Complex: a group of traits that define a specific culture
Culture Region: an area in which people have many shared culture traits.
Ethnic Groups: a human population that shares a common culture or ancestry.
This can be as simple as clothing or as life-altering as transportation systems.
Migration, war, and trade cause significant cultural change throughout history.
Acculturation: when an individual or group adopts some of the traits of another culture.
Assimilation: When immigrant groups adopt all of the features of the main culture.
Two concepts that help us understand how cultures change are innovation and diffusion.
Innovation: New ideas that a culture accepts.
Diffusion: when an idea of innovation spreads from one person or group to another is adopted.
Due to advances in technology, information can travel faster than ever across the entire planet.
Globalization: a process in which connections around the world increase and cultures become more alike.
The opposite of globalization is traditionalism.
This is the following of longtime practice and opposing many modern technologiesand ideas, also called a folk culture.
Cultural Divergence: the process of cultures becoming separate and distinct.
Language is important to culture to it is the main means of communication. Languages have spatial characteristics.
About 3,000-6,500 languages are spoken in the world today and are divided into more than a dozen (12) families.
The language with the most speakers is Mandarin Chinese, but English is the most widespread.
Speakers of any one language might use a specific dialect.
Dialect: a regional variation of a language. (example: English is spoken by Americans and the British)
To understand language patterns, geographers study where a language comes from and how far it has spread.
Religion is a key culture trait that binds many societies together. And gives meaning to peoples’ lives.
Religious differences are central to many conflicts in the world and throughout history.
Geographers identify three main types of religions: ethnic, animist, and universalizing.
Focus on one ethnic group and generally have not spread into other cultures.
They do not seek to convert.
People believe in the presence of spirits and forces of nature.
Polytheism: the belief in many gods.
Common in many traditional societies.
Examples: many African and Native American tribes
Seek followers all over the world.
Monotheism: the belief in one higher being.
Missionaries: people who dedicate their lives to spreading their religion throughout the world
Examples: Islam and Christianity