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Addressing Metadata in the MPEG-21 and PDF-A ISO Standards NISO Workshop: Metadata on the Cutting Edge May 2004 William G. LeFurgy U.S. Library of Congress wlef@loc.gov. Presentation Overview.

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Addressing Metadata in the MPEG-21 and PDF-A ISO StandardsNISO Workshop: Metadata on the Cutting EdgeMay 2004William G. LeFurgyU.S. Library of Congresswlef@loc.gov

presentation overview
Presentation Overview
  • Outline metadata approaches in two developing International Organization for Standardization specifications:
    • MPEG-21 (ISO 21000)
    • PDF-A (ISO 19005)
  • Highlight some practical advantages and disadvantages of both
  • My personal views, not those of LC

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

issues to keep in mind
Issues to Keep in Mind
  • Specs are in process: parts of MPEG-21 await initial approval; PDF-A is not yet approved
  • Limited implementation experience
  • Different communities have not yet compared different standards in detail
  • Landscape is sure to change over next several years

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

mpeg background
MPEG Background
  • Series of standards from Moving Picture Experts Group
  • MPEG-1, -2: Coding methods to compress A/V streams (DVD, digital TV, MP3 audio)
  • MPEG-4: Compression plus ability to interact with A/V objects (Quicktime 6, iTunes AAC)
  • MPEG-7: Standard way to represent/bundle multimedia objects using XML; useful for indexing, searching, distributing content

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

mpeg 21 overview
MPEG-21 Overview
  • Builds on MPEG-7 use of XML to define/constrain/bundle multimedia objects (text, video, audio, etc.)
  • Also defines how any kind of user can interact with content
  • A comprehensive framework to enable interoperable but controlled use of content from creation, distribution, and consumption
  • Protection of commercial IP rights is central

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

mpeg 21 features
MPEG-21 Features
  • Multiple modular parts
  • Part 2, Digital Item Declaration Language (DIDL) uses XML to express content elements, e.g.:
    • Container (items grouped as a logical package)
    • Item (a logical work)
    • Statement (descriptive, administrative metadata)
  • Part 3, Digital Item Identification states how to link unique identifiers to items

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

slide7

From: http://www.chiariglione.org/mpeg/standards/mpeg-21/image004.gif

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

mpeg 21 rights expression language
MPEG-21 Rights Expression Language
  • Part 5, Details “machine readable language to declare rights and permissions”
  • Aims to support end-to-end interoperability with access and use controls
  • Uses ContentGuard/Microsoft XrML (Extensible Rights Markup Language) spec

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

the rel data model
The REL Data Model

From: http://www.chiariglione.org/mpeg/standards/mpeg-21/image008.gif

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

digital repositories and mpeg 21
Digital Repositories and MPEG-21
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory uses spec to represent and manage complex digital objects
  • Serves to package objects for repository submission, storage, and dissemination as outlined in OAIS model
  • Accommodates existing metadata records and enables capture of life cycle management metadata
  • Also used in conjunction with NISO OpenURL and OAI-PMH

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

mpeg 21 pros and cons
MPEG-21 Pros and Cons
  • Pro
    • International standard
    • Broad commercial support for earlier MPEG specs
    • Packages any type of complex digital object per OAIS
    • Powerful and flexible means to express descriptive, structural, administrative, and other metadata
  • Con
    • Complex and highly technical
    • Few tools currently exist
    • Unclear now the extent to which spec will be adopted
    • Strong emphasis on commercial rights protection?

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

pdf a background
PDF-A Background
  • Goal is to define use of Adobe PDF version 1.4 for long-term preservation purposes
  • Effort stems from extensive use of PDF as primary format for records and documents that require long-term retention
  • Standard is being developed by ISO working group with representatives from government, industry, academia

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

pdf a overview
PDF-A Overview
  • Defines a constrained version of PDF that should remain viable for many years:
    • Audio and video content are forbidden
    • Javascript and executable file launches are prohibited
    • All fonts must be embedded and also must be legally embeddable for unlimited, universal rendering
    • Colorspaces specified in a device-independent manner
    • Encryption is disallowed
  • Requires a standards-based approach to metadata

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

pdf a metadata features
PDF-A Metadata Features
  • Based on Adobe Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP)
  • XMP is based on Resource Description Framework (RDF) and XML specifications
  • Adobe has defined core schemas (descriptive, media management, rights management, etc.)
  • XMP permits broad extensibility for defining customized schemas
  • Provides for embedding XML text packets in binary PDF files

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

digital repositories and pdf a
Digital Repositories and PDF-A
  • Not yet tested in a repository context…
  • …But repositories are (or will soon be) rife with PDF files from e-government, online publishing, and business workflow activities
  • PDF-A addresses conceptual repository needs for a stable file format with rich descriptive and administrative metadata

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

pdf a pros and cons
PDF-A Pros and Cons
  • Pro
    • International standard (pending)
    • Broad commercial support for Adobe PDF spec
    • Meets many user needs across the digital life cycle
    • Powerful and flexible means to express descriptive and administrative metadata
  • Con
    • Complex and highly technical
    • Few tools currently exist
    • Unclear now the extent to which spec will be adopted
    • XMP limitations for validating metadata
    • Requires another standard to package items per OAIS

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

further information mpeg 21
Further Information: MPEG-21
  • MPEG-21 Overview v.5:

http://www.chiariglione.org/mpeg/standards/mpeg-21/mpeg-21.htm

  • Using MPEG-21 DIDL to Represent Complex Digital Objects in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Digital Library

http://tinyurl.com/22e65

  • Using MPEG-21 DIP and NISO OpenURL for the Dynamic Dissemination of Complex Digital Objects in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Digital Library http://tinyurl.com/2klwz
  • From MPEG-1 to MPEG-21

http://tinyurl.com/3brc8

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata

further information pdf a
Further Information: PDF-A
  • PDF-A Committee web site:

http://www.aiim.org/standards.asp?ID=25013

  • PDF-A: Developing a File Format for Long-Term Preservation

http://www.rlg.org/preserv/diginews/diginews7-6.html#feature1

  • Adobe XMP web site

http://www.adobe.com/products/xmp/main.html

MPEG-21 and PDF-A Metadata