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Terminology . Janina, Marius, Mareen, Ina and Romina. Concept. What is a concept?. A concept is represented by a symbol that we use to name any object e.g. plant green tree wood concept symbol. How do we identify concepts?.

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Terminology

Terminology

Janina, Marius, Mareen, Ina and Romina



What is a concept
What is a concept?

  • A concept is represented by a symbol that we use to name any object

    e.g. plant

    green tree

    wood

    concept symbol


How do we identify concepts
How do we identify concepts?

  • The process of concept formation is used to identify concepts

  • Observation and identifying objects as having certain properties

  • Abstraction of properties to name the concept

  • Building groups of abstract types of objects into broader classes


Why do we need characteristics
Why do we need characteristics?

  • The necessary or “essential” characteristics are important to separate one concept from the other

  • e.g. Concept of water vs. concept of lemonade

    The identifying or “essential” characteristic may be the sweetness of lemonade in this case


Tree structure of concept liquids
Tree structure of concept “liquids”

  • Intension = the sum of all characteristics

  • Extension = the range of objects


  • Characteristics can be expressed as:

  • properties of the specific concept or

  • relations to other concepts

  • Next to those characteristics we also need specific classes that concepts belong to


Types of concepts
Types of concepts

  • Many different types of concepts need to be structured carefully

  • Three main methods to structure concepts:

  • class concepts

  • property concepts

  • relation concepts


1 class concepts
1. Class concepts

  • Concepts can be attributed to a class to identify the type of concept

  • e.g. “Venus” is attributed to the class of planets


2 property concepts
2. Property concepts

  • Concepts can be grouped according to common properties and the distinctive features of a class

  • e.g. quadrupeds = animals having four legs

  • The common property = “quadrupeds”

    It can be divided by the distinctive of “being tamed for human use” into domestic and wild animals


3 relation concepts
3. Relation concepts

  • Concepts can be differentiated by the relationships between categories

  • e.g. tables, chairs, cupboards = furniture

  • It can be further differentiated into “household furniture” and “office furniture”


Relationships
Relationships

  • Important way to structure concepts because any type of conceptual relationship can be relevant

  • e.g. an object can be related to its geographical origin, its material substance, its method of production, etc.

  • To structure relationships and to differentiate between them, they are divided up into

  • the following main subgroups:

  • Generic relationship

  • Partitive relationship


1 generic relationship
1. Generic relationship

  • Divides concepts up according to a hierarchy:

  • Broader (generic) concept is superordinate to

  • Narrower (specific) concept

  • This most common type of relationship can be expressed by the formula:

  • X is a type of A

    Or X, Y, Z are types of A

    Or A has the specific concepts X, Y, Z

    Or A has the subtype X


The following example presents a horizontal relationship with several layers
The following example presents a horizontal relationship with several layers

At each lower level the degree of specifity becomes higher,

the intention becomes narrower


2 partitive relationship
2. Partitive relationship with several layers

  • Also called “whole-part-relationship”

  • Needed to indicate the connection between concepts consisting of more than one part and their constituent parts

  • Can be expressed in the following formula:

  • X is a constituent part of Y

    Or X, Y, Z are constituent parts of A

    Or A consists of X

    Or A consists of X, Y, Z,


Subject classification
Subject classification with several layers

  • Needed to classify larger groups of concepts next to the relationship

  • Groups can be found in traditional dictionaries and glossaries as a hierarchical or alphabetical order.

  • Limited by the fact that they cannot reflect relationships


  • The thesaurus is a compromise solution between classification and conceptual relationships.

  • It has a deep hierarchical structure with (sometimes) seven or more sublevels

  • e.g. In a Root-Thesaurus the “mechanical engineering” is subdivided into

  • “Heat engineering”

  • “Fluid engineering”

  • “Vacuum engineering”

  • “Prime movers”

  • “Mechanical systems”


  • At the end we are left with categories of topics or subject areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

     Subject classification helpful in structuring and selection of entities for a specialised dictionary

     But beyond this we need a broad structure as well as a complex set of relationships


Definitions
Definitions areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations


What is a definition in terminology
What is a Definition in Terminology? areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

“The explanation of the accepted specialised meanings of lexical items the occurrence of which can be documented in a variety of sources“


Methods of definition
Methods of Definition areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • There are various methods of definition

  • Choice of method according to:

    • the nature of the concept which has to be defined

    • the particular purpose of the definition


Definition by analysis
Definition by Analysis areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • pneumonia = an inflammation of the lung tissue

  • stomatitis = an inflammation of the mouth

  • dog = a domesticated carnivorous mammal


Definition by synonyms
Definition by Synonyms areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • software = logiciel

  • daisy = bellis perennis

  • dog = canis lupus forma familiaris


Definition by paraphrase
Definition by Paraphrase areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • whiteness = the state of being white

  • flotation = the act of making something float

  • lengthen = the process of making something longer


Definition by synthesis
Definition by Synthesis areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • metatarsalgia

    = a painful neuralgic condition of the foot, felt in the ball of the foot and often spreading thence up the leg

  • dog

    = a domesticated carnivorous mammal related to the foxes and wolves and raised in a large variety of breeds


Definition by implication
Definition by Implication areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • dial

    = a clock or watch has a dial divided into segments for hours and minutes over which the hands move

  • diagnosis

    = we make a diagnosis when we identify certain symptoms as characteristic of specific conditions


Definition by denotation
Definition by Denotation areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • dog

    = dogs are spaniels, poodles, Pekinese, alsatians and similar animals

  • ocean

    = oceans are the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Indian Ocean


Definition by demonstration
Definition by Demonstration areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • Definition by showing drawings, photographs or pointing to an object


A theory of terms
A Theory of Terms areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations


The onomasiological approach
The Onomasiological Approach areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • Lexicographer: collects ‘all’ words of a language, sorts them in various ways

  • Terminologist: interest in subsets of the lexicon, which constitute the vocabulary of special language  needs to structure knowledge orders terms he has discovered by reference to a conceptual system

  • Rarely involved in the process of naming an original concept

  • !!! A word can belong to more than one area of knowledge  terminologist has to distinguish meaning before he distinguishes words


The traditional terminological theory
The Traditional Terminological Theory areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • A ‘naming’ approach

  • It starts from concepts and looks for the names of these concepts

  • Avoids occurrence of homonyms

  • Terminological dictionary: words are ordered in single entries with each separate sense of a word


The lexicographical approach
The Lexicographical Approach areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • A ‘meaning’ approach

  • It starts from words and looks for their meaning


Terms and their forms
Terms and Their Forms areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • Terms are the linguistic representation of concepts

  • Special language: strive to systematize principles of designation and name concepts according to pre-specified rules

  • Process of scientific observation and description includes designation of concepts  manipulating lexical forms


English terminology
English Terminology areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

Synthetic and analytic means of term

formation

  • Synthetic methods: modify lexical items by means of affixes

  • Analytic methods: combine independent and lexical units into larger units (e.g. compounding)


Modern terminological theory
Modern Terminological Theory areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • Accepts the occurrence of synonymic expressions and variants of terms

  • Terminology adopts a corpus-based approach to lexical data collection

     a term is no longer seen as a separate item


Terms in dictionaries
Terms in Dictionaries areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • Concepts represented in terminological dictionaries are predominantly expressed by the linguistic form of nouns

  • Only selected verbs and adjectives

  • Dictionary entries are relatively uniform:

    • Semantic and pragmatic information

    • Graphic information

    • Acronyms / other abbreviated forms

    • Contextual variations

    • Multiple compound nouns


Homonyms synonyms and variations
Homonyms, Synonyms and Variations areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • No concept of only one designation

  • Need to establish criteria for identifying the one regular and proper name for a concept to which the other are variants


Status of terms
Status of Terms areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • Terms can have a variable pragmatic status

  • It is associated with their age, acceptability, exclusiveness of existence and spread of use

  • TERM-DEFINITION-CONCEPT

    (e.g. ‘sitt’ (German))

  • Translation theory  ‘quality label’


Processes of terminologisation
Processes of Terminologisation areas and not with concepts of separate entities, activities, properties or relations

  • Terminologist:

    • Recorder of new terms

    • Advisor on designation

    • Administrator of gradual evolution of terms



The question of terminologisation is fundamental to the description of special language
The Question of Terminologisation is Fundamental to the Description of Special Language

  • Special communication: particular grouping of lexical items must be clearly assigned to either free collocations or compounds

  • Idioms used by specialists are terminologised

  • Problem for lexicographers: must distinguish between inherent and the collocational meaning of the lexical item


  • Difficulties for terminologists: recognition of terminological units in running texts

  •  lexicalization solves the problem by form of external characteristic like graphemic signs

  •  terminologisation is less dependent on such devices, because special language users are expected to know the appropriate concepts


A model of communication
A Model of Communication terminological units in running texts


A model of communication1
A Model of Communication terminological units in running texts

  • Two specialists in the same discipline

  • Sender is motivated to transmit a message

  • Sender expects recipient message to receive


  • Message is the totality of terminological units in running texts

  • Intention

  • Assumed expectations

  • Knowledge content

  • Language selected by sender

  • Specialist communication is highly conventional and stylised



  • Compositional signals to signify intention terminological units in running texts

  • Includes devices as

  • lay- out

  • capitalisation

  • underlining

  • paragraph numbering

  • subtitling

  • Footnotes and bibliographic references fulfil an additional intention

  • Communication is not successful, if sender’s intention is misinterpreted!!!



The functional efficacy of terms
The Functional Efficacy of Terms terminological units in running texts


  • Use of special languages restricted terminological units in running texts

  • Special language differs from general language in that :

    a) Constituted of special text types

    • laboratory reports

    • test certifications

    • special syntax

      b) Use of terms in addition to words



Standardization
Standardization objectives) :


  • Conceptual innovation becomes manifested in the creation of new terms

  • New terms are introduced to fill gaps or to replace existing ones

  • A new concept becomes standardized when users reach public agreement

  • Sets of definitions in textbooks, glossaries or manuals are the outward manifestation of this process

     Standardization is fixation of meaning


Motivation for standardization
Motivation for new terms Standardization

In the interest of:

  • Economy

  • Precision

  • Appropriateness


Principles of standardization
Principles of Standardization new terms

  • Standardization is introduced after new concepts, objects and processes are established

  • Then names are given to these new concepts

  • Many alternatives exist

  • Standardization is a retrospective activity


Instruments of standardization
Instruments of Standardization new terms

  • How do terms become standardized?

  • Nomenclature commissions play a role in the efforts of standardization in their particular subject fields

  • In the industrial sector, national standardization bodies are active

  • Very few guidelines for the selection, definition and publication of terminology

     lack of uniformity



Objectives of standardization
Objectives of Standardization new terms

  • ISO established seven principles on standardization

  • Objects are standardized first and then a term becomes standardized

  • Standardization is a social and economic activity

  • The publication of a standard has little value in itself


4. The establishment of a standard firstly requires a choice of a suitable term and secondly a fixation of this term and this definition

5. Standardization must be re- examined at regular intervals and revised

6. It is necessary to determine test methods in order to verify whether the object conforms to the specifications

7. A standard has to be legally enforced and is a matter of convenience and economy


Methods of standardization
Methods of Standardization choice of a suitable term and secondly a fixation of this term and this definition

  • There is a variety of methods and possibilities available to standardization

  • Redefinition of words

  • Redefinition of existing terms

  • Derivation

  • Composition

  • Borrowing

  • Compression


The efficacy of standard in terminology
The Efficacy of Standard in Terminology choice of a suitable term and secondly a fixation of this term and this definition

  • Standardization makes communication more effective

  • Standards are:

  • economical

  • precise

  • appropriate



Standardizing agencies and glossaries
Standardizing Agencies and Glossaries differences between participants in communication are minimal a higher proportion of standardized terms can be used

  • They produce glossaries to facilitate communication


  • The British Standards Guide says about terms contained in a standard glossary that „Terminology within a standard should be consistent, so that the same object or concept is always described or expressed by the same term and not by the use of synonyms“

  • The members of a standardizing company determine which terms get included


  • Only very few areas of British standardization are covered by glossaries

  • Glossaries can be written before standardization of objects, methods or specifications begins

  • Glossaries can be compiled after standards are established to collect the terminology

  • So glossaries may be needed to prepare effective standards and effective standards lead to glossaries

  • Glossaries fulfil the aim of standardization to provide means of communication



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