ISLAMIC STUDIES ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM (Lecture:12) Dr. Saif-ud-Din Saif
Two Groups of Ayaat in QUran (Al-e-Imran) He is the One Who has revealed to you the Book. Some of its verses are decisive-(Muhkamaat), they are the foundation of the Book - while others are allegorical (Mutashabihaat). Those whose hearts are infected with disbelief follow the allegorical part to mislead others and to give it their own interpretation, seeking for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. Those who are well grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in it; it is all from our Lord." None will take heed except the people of understanding.
Contents Attributes of Islam Salient Features of Islam Types of Acts/Deeds in Islam The Actions Prescribed by Islam
ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF ISLAM A DIVINE RELIGION (the word of Allah Almighty) THE ONLY RELIGION THAT BELIEVES IN ALL THE PREVIOUS DIVINE RELIGIONS AND PROPHETS THE LAST AND PERFECT RELIGION WITH THE LAST MESSENGER AND LAST MESSAGE THE ONLY RELIGION FOR ALL THE MANKIND A RELIGION FOR ALL THE TIMES & PEOPLE TO COME A PRACTICAL AND PRACTICABLE SYSTEM
ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM A RELIGION WITH A POTENTIAL TO ADDRESS ALL THE NEWLY EMERGING PROBLEMS A HARMONIOUS BLEND AMONG ALL THE SPHERES OF LIFE A NATURAL RELIGION (Deen-e-Fitrat) A BALANCED RELIGION A COMPLETE/PERFECT SYSTEM AN EQUALIZING SOURCE A PEACEFUL RELIGION
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM 1. THE ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF ISLAM a. Faith in Oneness of Allah, The Almighty, The Sovereign, The Creator, The Sustainer. b. Not to be oppressed or oppress others. c. Not to enslave other or be enslaved. d. All mankind is slave (creation and abd) of Allah only; should only obey Allah. e. To create a society (Islamic State) according to instructions of Holy Quran & Model of Sunnah. Cont…
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM 2. A DIVINE RELIGION (the word of Allah Almighty) 3. THE ONLY RELIGION THAT BELIEVES IN ALL THE PREVIOUS DIVINE RELIGIONS AND PROPHETS 4. THE LAST AND PERFECT RELIGION WITH THE LAST MESSENGER AND LAST MESSAGE Cont…
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM 5. THE ONLY RELIGION FOR ALL THE MANKIND 6. A RELIGION FOR ALL THE TIMES & PEOPLE TO COME 7. A PRACTICAL AND PRACTICABLE SYSTEM An ideology with a practical system of life that fully appreciates all the needs of mankind and gives real and viable (practicable) solutions to fulfill them.
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM 8. A RELIGION WITH A POTENTIAL TO ADDRESS ALL THE NEWLY EMERGING PROBLEMS 9. A HARMONIOUS BLEND AMONG ALL THE SPHERES OF LIFE a. Instructions to meet the genuine requirements of mankind b. To keep perfect balance between the instructions for body, mind and spirit so that one sector should not dominate the others. c. Moderation advised in all good deeds. d. Extremism strictly forbidden
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM 10. A NATURAL RELIGION (Deen-e-Fitrat) a. No suppression or negation of the human instincts (fitrat) thud body can perform at optimum level to achieve the higher purpose of its creation. b. Development of soul to the higher planes of existence desired thereof. c. Caters for all the natural needs/demands of mankind in a rightful way. d. Does not allow bodily desires to low levels of animalism and hedonism or torture oneself. e. Provides chances for body and soul to mutually co-exist and develop; it prevents and resolves the internal psychological and spiritual conflicts.
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM 11. A BALANCED RELIGION (Oppression-Free) a. Does not allow an individual to transgress against other individuals or the society b. Does not allow the society to commit transgression against an individual c. Does not allow one class or group of people to enslave or exploit other class or group d. Creates a balance between different sectors of society, in all material and spiritual realms e. Gives due regard to the just human needs and places everything at its proper place. f. Gives full allowance to physical, economic, social and spiritual needs for a harmonious co-existence and growth.
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM 12. A COMPLETE/PERFECT SYSTEM Complete & a perfect guidance on social, economic and all other disciplines. Guarantees personal freedom,opportunities for individual enterprise, not at the cost of society, exploitation or social injustice. c. None is superior on the basis of racism or color; No one enjoys any superiority over the others except in virtue and piety. Cont.
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM AIM: Welfare of all member of the society and the global community as a whole. Cont.. Protects the society from hazards of the two extremes of Capitalism and Socialism or any other -ism. Discourages the two extremes of entirely leaving the worldly affairs and ignoring the bodily needs or getting lost in the physical pleasure and worldly affairs. It gives a moderate way in between, where one can live a normal life and fulfill the purpose of his creation. Peace of Mind: Self-actualization, Connectedness & Enlightenment according to Islamic code.
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM g. Islamic social and economic system was ordained much before man-made systems. It ensures the basic needs of mankind, i.e., food, housing, security and sexual satisfaction. Hadith: “Whosoever acts as a public officer for us (i.e., The Islamic State) and has no wife, he shall have a wife; if he has no house, he shall be given a house to live in; if he has no servant, he shall have one; and if he has no animal (a conveyance), he shall be provided with one. Any one who takes more than this has exaggerated (i.e., taken more than he deserves).” (Ahmad). h. The usefulness of socio-economic & all other Islamic systems is everlasting.
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM 13. AN EQUALIZING SOURCE Freed the black from slavery. Recognized the rights of black slaves even to the highest seat of authority 1400 years ago in the Islamic State. c. Hadith: “Listen and obey even if a black slave be appointed as your superior, so long as he should enforce amongst you the Law of Allah (GOD).” d. No Imperialism or Monarchy in Islam. e. Prohibits usury and hoarding, which are basis of Capitalism; & rid of their evil consequences . f. The human rights, the real respect, the economic rights, inheritance, and right to vote were given to the women, first time in history by Islam. g. The men ordered to be the caretaker, supervisor and guardian of the women. (Gender equality)
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM 14. A PEACEFUL RELIGION a. Literal meaning of Islam: ‘Peace’. b. The first and foremost important aim of Islam is Peace for everyone. c. First ever code of ethics of war was given to the world by Islam.
2. SALIENT FEATURES OF ISLAM 1. Muslims worship only One Allah (GOD)- Tauheed 2. Faith in Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)- Risalat 3. Faith in all the Prophets 4. Faith in Quran & all previous Divine Books 5. Faith in Angels 6. Faith in Pre-destination 7. Resurrection after death 8. Day of Judgment 9. Five Pillars of Islam a. Shahdah (Tauheed & Risalat) b. Salaat c. Sawm (Fasting in Ramazan) d. Zakaat e. Hajj 6. Islam Commands all kinds of Good and forbids all kinds of Evil
2. SALIENT FEATURES OF ISLAM 1. Muslims worship only One Allah (GOD) a. Allah is the one and unique in His Oneness b. Nothing is like Him and He is not like any other thing. c. Allah has no partner/s. d. Allah is the only Creator, the only Sustainer and the only Cherisher of everything.
2. SALIENT FEATURES OF ISLAM 1. Muslims worship only One Allah (GOD) e. Allah has created everything and He was not created by any one. f. He is the one who gives life and death. g. Muslims trust in Him, ask Him for help, guidance, patience and support. h. Allah is able to do all things and has no need of wife, son or daughter.
3. TYPES OF THE ACTS/DEEDS IN ISLAM Strictly Forbidden Acts (Haram) Permitted (Halal) Compulsory (Mandatory) Acts (Farz) Strongly Recommended Acts (not Farz) (Sunnat-e-Moakada) Optional Acts (Sunnat & Nafl) Only Allah can make the rules/laws; The Caliph (Muslim emperor) can only implement the rules of Allah.
BROADER CLASSIFICATION OF ACTS 1. Do’s (Marufaat, Awamir) 2. Don’ts (Munkaraat, Nawahi) Do- Amr: (order to do an act) Don’t-Nahi: (forbidding from doing an act) Key to survival of a Muslim Society: “Amr-bil-maroof wa Nahi-anil-Munkar” (order to do good and stop bad deeds)
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM Worship Allah only Islamic injunctions: Farz, Sunnat, Nafl (Tawhed, Risalat, Salaat, Zakaat, Sawm, Hajj- Jihaad, Learning & Teaching Quran) Individual level; Interpersonal relations Community level Social affairs Domestic affairs: Parents, Family members, Spouse, Children, Relatives Economic affairs: Individual/National level
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM Political affairs Professional Responsibilities Fear Me (Allah) and Me Alone. Do not mix the Truth with falsehood, or knowingly conceal the truth. Establish Salah (prayers); give Zakah (charity); & bow down with those who bow down in worship
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM 13.Seek Allah’s help with patience and prayer: surely, Allah is with those who are patient. 14. There is security of life for you in the law of retaliation (Qisaas), so that you may learn self-restraint. 15. Fight in the way of Allah & do not transgress 16. Give generously for the cause of Allah
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM 13.Seek Allah’s help with patience and prayer: surely, Allah is with those who are patient. 14. There is security of life for you in the law of retaliation (Qisaas), so that you may learn self-restraint. 15. Fight in the way of Allah & do not transgress Give generously for the cause of Allah
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM 17. They ask you what they should spend in charity. Say: "Whatever you spend with a good heart, give it to parents, relatives, orphans, the helpless, & travelers in need. 18. Those of you who die and leave widows should bequeath for them a year’s maintenance without causing them to leave their homes 19. Orders regarding hygiene, cleanliness of body and hair, bathing, trimming nails,
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM 20. Dowry to woman at the time of nikah is obligatory. 21. Repentance with Allah (right to be forgiven by Allah) is only for those who do something evil in ignorance and repent as soon as they realize it; Allah will pardon them. Allah is the Knowledgeable, Wise. (An-Nisa)
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM There is no repentance for those who persist in their evil deeds until death approaches anyone of them and he says: "surely now I repent." Similarly, there is no repentance for those who die while they were still unbelievers; for them We have prepared a painful punishment.(An-Nisa)
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM 22. If you wish to marry another wife in place of the one you already have, do not take back anything of what you have given her even if it be a heap of gold. Would you take it back through slander and open sin (accusing her unjustly) ?(An-Nisa)
5. ACTS FORBIDDEN BY ISLAM
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS Forbids the association of anything in worship with Allah (Shirk) The worship of anything other than Allah (Kufr-disbelieving) To obey any person by disobeying Allah (La ta’at li-makhluqin fee ma’sia-til-Khaliq). To worship (follow) own whims, wishes, desires, lust or indulge in ‘rat race’ (desires of our nafs-Id/Ego/Animal-self)
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 5. To worship and follow the Shaitaan, a devout (sworn) enemy of mankind 6. Forbids all types of sins (large or small, hidden or open) Forbids Bid’ah (innovations in Islam) Forbids drinking wine, gambling, idol worship and divining arrows. Forbids making Jews and Christians your close friends.
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS Forbids following the Jews, Christians and other non-believers in any way. Forbids sitting with the people who make fun of the Ayaat of Holy Quran: i. Making fun of Ayaat ii. Openly disobeying the Ayaat 12. All types of addicting drugs, wine, Narcotics
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS Forbids Immodesty (Fah-sha) Bad language Adultery Home-sexuality, other perversions To kill another person except in cases where it is right to do so.
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS Forbidden to kill one’s children for fear of poverty or other wise;(before or after birth) Forbidden to commit suicide Never be disappointed from mercy of Allah Forbids the hypocrisy Forbids Lying, Backbiting, Breeching the trust, using Abusive language and jealousy.
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS • Forbidden to disturb the peace of the society (Fasaad-fil-Arz). • Forbids taking back one’s charity. • Forbids the employer to exploit the an employee & commands the employee to perform his duty honestly.
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS • Islam forbids killing the human beings except in cases where legal • Islam forbids to commit suicide • Forbids giving the false witness • Judiciary: To avoid injustice/Bribe • Magic & Curse
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 31. To disobey the parents 32. Canceling out good deeds by showing off, boasting or reminding others of one’s favors. 33. Offering of any nafl (supererogatory) prayers when: - the sun is rising, - when it is at its zenith, and - when it is setting, because it rises and sets between the horns of shaytan (Satan)
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 34. Raise the voice in prayer (disturbs others) 35. Urinating into stagnant water 36. Buying, selling and making “lost and found” announcements in the masjid. 37. Cheating 38. Looting, plundering
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 39. Taking or giving Bribe 40. Wine 41. Gambling: Lottery, Prize bonds, Cards, Sports, etc. 42. Divining arrows 43. Worship: the Idols, Tree, Grave, etc.
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 44. Worship of humans (Sajda, kissing hands of so-called spiritual leaders or even other people) 45. Worship of own nafs 46. Misappropriations of money unjustly
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 47. Not consume one another’s wealth through unlawful means; instead, do business with mutual consent; do not kill yourselves by adopting unlawful means. Indeed Allah is Merciful to you. 48. Acts of aggression and injustice: will thrown into hellfire, and this is very easy for Allah to do. (Sura An-Nisa)
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 49. Forbids haste in walking when the iqamah (call immediately preceding congregational prayer) is given, and prescribes walking in a calm and dignified manner. 50. Forbids wailing, tearing one’s clothes, beating oneself, or leaving one’s hair unkempt when a person dies.
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 51. GRAVES: a. Making them high, b. Cemented, c. Sitting on them, d. Walking on the graves, e. Putting lights/fire over them f. Writing on graves g. Prayers from the dead h. To take graves as places of worship j. Touching with reapect k. Bowing before or Sajda to a grave
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 52. Adulteration of food or any other item 53. Islam forbids celibacy and castration 54. Islam forbids women to make a wanton display of themselves (tabarruj) 55. It also forbids extreme forms of female circumcision. 56. Tattooing; any disfiguring of body 57. Long finger nails, cutting eyebrows, widening teeth, adding hair.
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 58. Eating of dead meat, regardless of whether it died by drowning, strangulation, shock or falling from a high place. 59. Clothing and adornment: Dress should be used conceal the body and not to reveal the body; not for show-off; not very expensive 60. Men are forbidden to wearing of gold.
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS 61. Men & women forbidden to wear each others dress (cursed ones) 62. Bearing false witness 63. Forbids Muslims to praise themselves 64. Forbids Muslims to talk in a secret way or whisper when others are present. (Manners)