Islamic Studies. Moderated by: Dziauddin b. Sharif B.Sh (Shariah & Economics) UM, M.Sh (Islamic Economics) UM. Room: 2009, 2 nd floor, CADP. Assignment. Title Freedom but specific, detail and must focus on the certain area or field.
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Islamic Studies Moderated by: Dziauddin b. Sharif B.Sh (Shariah & Economics) UM, M.Sh (Islamic Economics) UM. Room: 2009, 2nd floor, CADP.
Assignment • Title • Freedom but specific, detail and must focus on the certain area or field. • E.g.: “Zakat” is not specific, but zakat of trade or zakat fitrah or zakat of gold are considered specific. • Attracting, interesting and relating the current issues. • E.g.: “Using bomoh and pawang in treatment”. How does Islam view this? • Topics related to the history are not encourage when its just a fact. • E.g.: The life story of Ibn Sina – is not encourage but “The contribution of Ibn Sina in medical field.” – is possible. • Topics which are related to the Muslims’ challenges nowadays are most encourage. • E.g.: Terrorism: The best way to solve it.
Topics • Islam and Its Fundamentals • Concept of Vicegerency in Islam • Islamic Civilization • Islamic Political System • Entertainment in Islam • Epistemology and Axiology in Islam • Mazhab in Islam • System of Marriage in Islam • Current issues
Chapter 1: Islam and Its Fundamentals • The meaning of religion • referring to the faith/belief of someone • express the eternal questions of life, death and next world • forces man to think deeply in the vast creation of the world • function: develop mind, civilization,nation and countries
Revealed and Non revealed • Revealed • based on the concept of the Unity of God • believes in the prophet • main sources of guidance are heavenly scriptures. • Were born in the middle-east • appeared in regions which have historically under the influence of the Semitic race • missionary religions
Revealed and Non revealed • Non-revealed • are not based on the concept of the Unity of God • no prophet • do not regard heavenly scriptures • were born outside the middle-east • outside the Semitic area • not missionary
Undisputed sources Al-Quran Al-Sunnah Agreed by majority Ijma’ Qiyas Al-Deen The process of al-fiqh Aqidah/Tauhid Syariah Akhlak/Moral -Behavior -Thinking -The process of judgment -Six articles of faith -The pillar of Islam -Ibadat -Muamalat -Jinayat -Munakahat
Definition of al-Deen • It is not correct the word al-deen as religion or faith • it is a system that governs the whole aspect of mankind • technically means : belief in the omnipresence & omnipotence of God • being a state of submission as a result of the need to require something from someone who is far more superior
Definition of al-Deen • The description of al-Deen • complete system that has everything in it • system that comprises the worldly need & the Hereafter • serve the 3 basic : spiritual, mental and physical aspects.
The Importance of Five • Include: • preserve al-deen • through the law of riddah • preserve life • the law of killing • preserve mind • prohibiting the alcohol • preserve descendent • order to marry • prohibit adultery • preserve property • prohibiting the stealing
Vital Duties of Islam • Perform properly and correctly • perform the five pillars: • syahadat • solat • fasting • zakat • haji
Syahadat • The concept • it is fundamental • main believe which makes us as a Muslim • closely related to the Iman • witness and admit the existence of Allah and His Prophet • Methods • Know the asma’ Allah through al-Quran • Explore the contents in al-Quran • Observe the creation • Preserve the Allah’s command • Implement hukum (commandment). • Avoid to abrogate it. • Know the Rasulullah through al-hadith • Take the examples of Rasulullah in everything he did in his daily life
Wujud (Nafsiah) Qidam (Salbiah) Baqa’ (Salbiah) Mukhalafatuhu lilhawadith (Salbiah) Qiyamuhu binafsihi (Salbiah) Sama’ (Ma’ani) Basar (Ma’ani) Kalam (Ma’ani) Sami’an (Ma’nawiyyah) Basiran (Ma’nawiyyah) Mutakalliman (Ma’nawiyyah) Wahdaniya (Salbiah) Qudrat (Ma’ani) Iradat (Ma’ani) Ilmu (Ma’ani) Hayat (Ma’ani) Qadiran (Ma’nawiyyah) Muridan (Ma’nawiyyah) Aliman (Ma’nawiyyah) Hayyan (Ma’nawiyyah) Knowing Allah Iftiqar Istighna’
Mulberry leaves are thin, glossy, and light green in color. The shape of the leaf can be quite variable even on the same tree. Some leaves have 5 lobes while others have one lobe, two lobes, three lobes, or no lobes at all.
Knowing His Commandment (Hukum) • Syara’ • Taklifi • wajib, haram, sunnat, makruh, harus • Wadh’I • Sebab , syarat, Mani’, Sah, Batal • Akal • Wajib, Mustahil, Jaiz • Adat • Wajib, Mustahil,, Jaiz
Wadh’i • Reason (Sabab) : anything can cause the situation to be implemented ; e.g.: no water is reason for tayammum • Condition (Syarat) : anything is should be or compulsory to implement the thing or situation like pure water is a condition in order to be wudhu is valid.
Wadh’i • Obstacle (mani’) : anything can obstruct the situation or job from produce something. E.g.; haidh obstruct from prayer and fasting. • Validity (Sah) : any kind of job or situation is assumed as a legal due to completion of condition and covenant. • Invalid (batal) : any kind of deed that uncompleted because of uncompleted condition and covenant or they have the obstruction against it.
Aqal • Wajib : any decision that made by akal is must be like that (logically). E.g.: the existence of God, 5x2=10 • Impossible : any decision that made by akal is impossible to be like that. E.g.: no God, father is younger than son/daughter. • Jaiz : Anything could be accepted by akal either it is existed or not. E.g.: today will rainy
Adat • Wajib : anything according to adat could happen like that but it’s not 100% happened like that, it is possible to change.E.g.: fire can burning, eating can repleting, • Impossible : anything couldn’t happen according to adat. E.g.: Men can birth • Jaiz : anything could usually happen. E.g.: rich can be poor or poor can be rich
Matters That Abrogate Syahadat • حدثني هارون بن سعيد الأيلي حدثنا ابن وهب قال حدثني سليمان بن بلال عن ثور بن زيد عن أبي الغيث عن أبي هريرة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال اجتنبوا السبع الموبقات قيل يا رسول الله وما هن قال الشرك بالله والسحر وقتل النفس التي حرم الله إلا بالحق وأكل مال اليتيم وأكل الربا والتولي يوم الزحف وقذف المحصنات الغافلات المؤمنات • Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) observed: Avoid the seven most grievous sins. (The hearers) asked: What are they, Allah's Messenger? He (the Holy Prophet) replied: Associating anything with Allah, magic, killing of one whom Allah has declared inviolate without a just cause, devouring the property of an orphan, dealing in usury, fleeing on the day of fighting, and calumniating the chaste, innocent, believing women.
Syahadah • Matters That Abrogate Syahadat • 1.rely and depend on other than Allah • 2.does not admit that all bounties either material things or internal satisfaction are come from Allah • 3.worship other than Allah (diverted intention) • 4.give a total right to other than Allah in creating syariah law
Matters That Abrogate Syahadat • 5.To follow other than Allah except with His permission (parents, husband, teacher, leader) • وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ عَلى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَاوَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَيَّ ثُمَّ إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ • And if they contend with you that you should associate with Me what you have no knowledge of, do not obey them, and keep company with them in this world kindly, and follow the way of him who turns to Me, then to Me is your return, then will I inform you of what you did (luqman:15)
Matters That Abrogate Syahadat • 6.hatred feelings towards Islam. • 7.To permit what is prohibited and prohibit what is permissible. • 8.Does not believe with Quranic verses and prophet’s tradition • 9.rectify the leadership of non-Muslim and munafiq
Matters That Abrogate Syahadat • 10.Practice rites and rituals other than Islam that he should not do • 11.accuse a Muslim as non-Muslim and not assume non-Muslim as they are
Solat • Meaning: • comprises of words and actions that begin with takbir and end with the salam. • The pillars of solat • The valid condition of solat • The compulsory condition of solat
Fasting during Ramadhan • Meaning: • Ritual abstention at day time from the daybreak to sunset from allowing whether deliberately or mistaken anything to enter the stomach or any other parts of body which falls under the same legal judgement as the stomach • The condition of fasting • The things that can annul fasting
Zakat • Zakat means grow (in goodness) or 'increase', 'purifying' or 'making pure'. So the act of giving zakat means purifying one's wealth to gain Allah's blessing to make it grow in goodness
خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ صَلاَتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَّهُمْ وَاللّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ Take alms out of their property, you would cleanse them and purify them thereby, and pray for them; surely your prayer is a relief to them; and Allah is Hearing, Knowing ( Al-Taubah:103 ).
Zakat • 2 types: (1) Zakat On propertyIt is compulsory to give Zakat on the following types of property:(1) Livestock e.g.. goats, camels, and cows; (2) Cereals e.g.. rice, corn and wheat;(3) Fruits e.g.. Dates and Grapes only;(4) Gold and Silver (includes foreign-exchange, valuable notes and savings);(5) Minerals and buried treasure;(6) Stocks (goods to be traded).
(2) Zakat Fitrah (Zakat on yourself) It is a means of 'purifying' the act of fasting (which is the fourth principle of Islam) in the month of Ramadhan as we might have unconsciously committed certain sins while performing the fast. Also, the proceeds will help to lighten the burden of the poor and other needy groups. Zakat Fitrah is compulsory (wajib) to all Muslims. It is compulsory that the item to be given away as Zakat Fitrah is the staple food of that country. In many countries in Asia, the staple food is rice. Hence, the amount to be given is about 2.3 kilograms of rice. For practical purposes, the monetary equivalent of that amount is allowed to be used as Zakat Fitrah.
The person who are qualified • إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاء وَالْمَسَاكِينِوَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَاوَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَوَفِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِوَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللّهِ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
Fakir - One who has neither material possessions nor means of livelihood. • Miskin - One with insufficient means of livelihood to meet basic needs. • Amil - One who is appointed to collect zakat. • Muallaf - One who converts to Islam. • Riqab - One who wants to free himself from bondage or the shackles of slavery. • Gharmin - One who is in debt (money borrowed to meet basic, halal expenditure). • Fisabillillah - One who fights for the cause of Allah. • Ibnus Sabil - One who is stranded in journey.
Performing Hajj • Literally: The word "Hajj" means heading for an honorable person or place. • Legally: Hajj means worshipping Allah by performing the Hajj rituals, which are defined as specific acts performed at a specific time and place in a specific way.
The Rules of Hajj:1. Ihram2. Standing by `Arafah3. Ifadah Circumambulation4. Sa`i between Safa and Marwah 5. Shave or trim or cut hair 6. Done in order
Characteristic of Islam • Al-Rabbaniyyah • Al-Syumul • Al-Wasatiyyah/Al-Tawazun • Al-Thabat wa Al-Murunah • Al-Waqi’iyyah • Al-Ijabiyyah • Al-Inqilabiyyah
Objective and purpose To know the objective of life Recognize the stage of preferences Free from internal conflicts, anxiety and individualism Problem Argue about the life Argue about the invisible matter Solution The concept of similarity The concept of taqwa Refusing of assabiyyah Sources and methods Al-quran Al-hadith Mutawatir Masyhur Ahad Sahih Hassan Daif Maudu’ Ijma’ Kubra Sukuti Qiyas Al-Rabbaniyah
The universality of Islamic Revelation The sealed messenger of God who came to complete the message of his fellow prophets The universality of Islamic teaching Aqidah Syariah Morality Al-Syumul
The features Aqidah Clear Morality Integratin of two elements (human intellect and lust) Syariah The advantages Justice Straight path Evidences of all goodness Peace Evidence of strength Al-wasatiyyah
Al-Rabbaniyyah • Can be divided into: • a. objective and concentration • b. source and method
Al-Rabbaniyyah As An Objective • Know the objective of life • To know our god by observing His creation • as a garden to plant as much as u can • To recognize the stage of preferences • fiqh al-awlawiyat • to free someone oneself from internal conficts and anxiety about servant and his God • the 20 attributes of Allah
Al-Rabbaniyyah As An Objective (cont..) • To free oneself from individualism • the concept of ta`awun • Tithe • Sadaqah • the concept of similarity • Taqwa • Refusing the concept of assabiyyah
Al-Rabbaniyyah As A Source & Method • Mujma’ Alaih (Undisputed Sources) • Al-Quran • Al-Hadith • Muttafaq Alaih • Ijma’ (Consensus) • Qiyas • Mukhtalaf Fih • Istihsan, Maslahah Mursalah, Al-Urf, Istishab
Al-Quran • Date of Nuzul: • 17 Ramadhan 13 BH/6 August 632M • Total of Verses : 114 • Total of sentences : 6666 • Total of Words : 77,450 • Total of Letter : 1,025,000
Al-Quran (cont..) • Content: • Munakahat (70 sentences) • Muamalat (70 sentences) • Jinayah (30 sentences) • Economy and Finance (10) • Solat, Fasting, Tithe, Pilgrime (147)
Hadith • Can be divided into 2 types according to the numbers of reporters: • Mutawatir • Masyhur • Ahad • Gharib • Aziz • Mustafid
Hadith (cont..) • According to the status of Rawi and Isnad: • Sahih • Adil • Dhabit • Hassan • Dai’if • Maudu’
Hadith (cont..) • The most famous & credibility of the book of hadith • Sahih Bukhari • Sahih Muslim • Sunan Abu Daud • Sunan At-Tirmizi • Sunan An-Nasa’I • Sunan Ibn Majah
Ijmak (Concensus) • Definition: The agreement among the mujtahid • Two types: • Ijma’ Kubra • Ijma’ Sukuti
Qiyas • Definition : Analogy • Covenant : • previous problem which had the commanded • New problem/cases • the origin of commandment • the reason (illat) • Zakat of rice
Al-Syumul • The universality of Islamic Revelation • the sealed messenger of God who came to complete the message of his fellow prophets • الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الإِسْلاَمَ دِينًا • This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion (Maidah:3) • The universality of Islamic teaching • aqidah • submission • morality