Formation of Western Europe Chapter 14
I. The Age of Faith • Around 900s • The church started massive rebuilding projects to restructure what invaders destroyed in Western Europe • Still considered Middle Ages
Problems in the Church Married priests Simony: bishops sold positions in the church Lay Investure The Age of Faith (cont’d)
The Age of Faith (cont’d) • Reform and Organization • Popes Leo IX and Gregory VII enforced church laws and reorganized the church • Papal Curia: Pope’s advisors (acted as a court) • Tithes 1/10th the yearly income
The Age of Faith (cont’d) • New Religious Orders • Friars: traveling preachers; vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience • Dominicans: early order of friars; scholars • Franciscans: St. Francis; treated all things like spiritual brothers
The Age of Faith (cont’d) • Cathedrals • Romanesque: 800-1100 • Round arches • heavy roof • thick walls • tiny windows
The Age of Faith (cont’d) • Gothic: 1100s • Roofs thrust upward—reaching heaven • Huge stained glass windows • Notre Dame: most famous
When: started around1096; lasted approx 300 years What: Holy Wars between the Christians and Muslims over the holy lands II. The Crusades
How it happened: Muslims threatened Constantinople Byzantine Emperor sent letter for help Pope Urban II issued a call for a “holy war” or crusade Over the next 300 years, several crusades took place The Crusades (cont’d)
Causes Religious: Muslims controlled Palestine (Holy Land); threatened Constantinople Christians wanted to reunite Christian lands The Crusades (cont’d)
The Crusades (cont’d) • Social: • Get rid of quarrelsome knights who threatened peace • Younger sons wanted land and position in society as well as adventure
The Crusades (cont’d) • Economic: • Merchants made $ by making loans to finance the journey; wanted control of trade routes.
The Crusades (cont’d) • Effects of the Crusades • Showed the Power of the church • Thousands went to war b/c church said so • Women had chance to operate affairs at home • Increased Trade, cities, and Universities • Trade expanded b/t Europe and SW Asia • Spices, fruits, cloth came from Asia • Benefited Christians and Muslims
The Crusades (cont’d) • Legacy of bitterness and hatred left for Muslims • Continues today • Christians displayed hatred and bitterness to Muslims • Jews and Christians left in Muslim controlled territory felt more persecution
The Crusades (cont’d) • 1st and 2nd Crusade • 1097- three armies of knights and people gathered outside Constantinople- not prepared for climate and had no plan, no leader • 1099- army of 12,000 managed to capture Jerusalem and a small strip of land • 1144- Muslims captured a key city- 2nd Crusade began • 1187-Jerusalem captured by Saladin
The Crusades (cont’d) • 3rd Crusade • Three Kings- • Philip II (France) • “Barbarossa” (German Emperor) • Richard the Lionhearted (England) • --- arguments and death left Richard alone • Saladin- Kurdish Warrior and Muslim leader • Result-Truce in 1192 Jerusalem under Muslim control, but unarmed Christians could visit.
The Crusades (cont’d) • 4th Crusade failed, looting of Constantinople by knights, religious spirit faded- most were out for their own gain. • The Children’s Crusade • French-led by a 12 year old, 30,000 children • Germany- 20,000 children • Results- many died from cold or starvation, lost at sea, sold into slavery- only 2,000 returned home
The Crusades (cont’d) • Spanish Crusade • 1100’s-Muslims (Moors) controlled much of Spain • Reconquista- long effort to drive out Muslims • 1492- Ferdinand and Isabella gain control of Grenada– the last Muslim controlled territory
The Crusades (cont’d) 4. Inquisition • To unify Spain and increase their power • Isabelle and Ferdinand used the court of the church to suppress heresy (people who’s religious beliefs differed from the Roman Catholic Church-Muslims and Jews) • 1492- all Jews and Muslims were gone from Spain
III. Advances in Agriculture • Switch to Horsepower • In the past - farmers used oxen (not real fast) • Switched to horses that could do 3 times as much work in the same amount of time. • Three Field System • In the past – used a two-field system, where they only used 50% (1/2) of their land. • The three-field system allowed farmers to use 67% (2/3)of their land, thereby producing more.
Advances in Ag. (cont’d) • Guilds • organization of individuals in the same business who work together to improve economic and social conditions for it members • Functions of the Guild • Set standards of quality • Train Apprentices • Carried goods to local regions • Examples: Bakers, Wine makers, Glass makers, Tailors, etc
IV. Trade and Finance • Commercial Revolution: • Expansion of trade and business • 2 important effects: • Careers changed • Cities grew
Fairs and Trade Took place mainly in towns Peasants from manors would travel to buy, sell, and trade Items: cheese, bacon, wine, glass, salt, leather, dyes, knives, ropes, honey Crusades opened up trade routes Business and Banking Due to the mass travel of merchants and traders, checks and credit became a means of moving money. Lending also became prevalent Trade and Finance (cont’d)
Trade and Finance (cont’d) • Urban Life Flourishes • Populations increase • 30 million to 42 million in 50 years • Burghers Develop • New merchant class; town dwellers • Resisted taxes of lords, organized themselves, and demanded privileges
V. Interest in Learning • Old Greek philosophical works re-emerge during and after the crusades • They were kept in Muslim libraries in Spain • Jewish scholars translated the Arabic versions into Latin • Europeans acquired a huge new body of knowledge • Universities develop • Wanted govt. or church jobs • Took 5-7 yrs to get bachelor’s degree
Interest in Learning (cont’d) • Vernacular: everyday language of a person’s homeland • a few poets started writing in a language different from Latin • Examples: Canterbury Tales, The Divine Comedy, The book of the City of Ladies.
VI. England Moves Toward Democracy • Early Invasions • For Centuries: Anglos and Saxons invaded England and stayed creating the Anglo-Saxon culture • 800’s= Vikings were turned back by King Alfred the Great who named the territory England • 1016= Danish King united Vikings and Anglo-Saxons into one people • 1042- King Edward the Confessor took the throne • 1066= Edward died without an heir
England Moves Toward Democracy (cont’d) • The Norman Invasion • William the Conqueror • Duke of Normandy • VS. Harold Godwinson • Anglo-saxon that claimed the throne • Battle of Hastings Oct. 14, 1066 • William and the Normans win and take England • (Harold is hit in the eye by an arrow)
England Moves Toward Democracy (cont’d) • Goals of English Kings • Hold and add to their French lands • Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine • This added a large territory in France • Strengthen power over the nobles and the church • Henry created courts and sent judges all over the kingdom to collect taxes, settle lawsuits, and punish crimes; this became common law: unified body of law
England Moves Toward Democracy (cont’d) • The Magna Carta (Great Charter) • Guaranteed certain political rights • No taxation without representation • A jury trial • Equal protection under the law • Intended to defend the rights of Nobles • In time extended to all citizens
England Moves Toward Democracy (cont’d) • How it happened: • Henry II succeeded by son Richard the Lionhearted. Richard died; Left brother John in charge (aka-softsword) 1199-1216 • John lost Normandy and all lands in Northern France to Philip II (Augustus) • John was cruel, alienated church, threatened to take away charters for self-government, and raised taxes… taxation w/o representation • Nobles revolt June 15, 1215; force him to sign Magna Carta
England Moves Toward Democracy (cont’d) • Parliament • Next king--Edward I needed more money- raised taxes • Called knights, lords, bishops, and burgesses (people with wealth) from all over England in November 1295 to form the Model Parliament (Legislative group) • 1300s-1400s- Parliament divided into two houses (Lords and House of Commons) served to check the king’s power and strengthen democracy
VII. Capetian Dynasty rules France • Leaders • Capetian Dynasty began when the last Carolingian (remember Charlemagne) died and Hugh Capet took over a small territory in France; included Paris • Capetian rulers secured French unity and increased power over 300 years; 987-1328 • Philip II (Remember the Crusader who fought with Richard) – sought to weaken English Kings’ power in France- succeeded under John (remember the Softsword)
Capetian Dynasty rules France (cont’d) • Democracy begins • Philip created courts in France • Henry IX (Philip’s grandson) created a French appeals court- strengthened his power • Philip IV- began to call members of society (including commoners) together to make decisions and gain support for his policies: forming the Estates General • First Estate = Church Leaders • Second Estate = Nobles • Third Estate - commoners
The Great Schism CAUSE: Thru a series of situations the Roman Catholic Church ended up with two popes. (One in Italy and the other in France) The division (or schism) was over which one should be the pope. This weakened the power of the church (Lost some of their credibility. John Wycliff Who – English preacher Stated – “Jesus Christ was the head of the church, not the Pope.” His complaint – Church was worldly, and pope had too much authority. VIII. Problems of the Church
IX. Hundred Years’ War • Stats • Lasted from 1337 – 1453 • Fighting was off and on, not continuous • Who: England v. France • Central Issue: The Throne of France • Weapon that altered everything was the longbow
Hundred Years’ War (cont’d) • Weapons • Longbow – “The Machine Gun of the Middle Ages” • English developed it • Description: about 6 feet tall, cheap to make, easy to carry • Lethal Aspects: Accurate to about 200 yards, average archer could shoot about 14 arrows per minute • The French were still using crossbows, which made the battles even more lopsided.
Hundred Years’ War (cont’d) • French Heroine • Joan of Arc – French Teenager • Background – Had visions that she should lead the French Army • The Army followed her, and won several battles, and guided the French to victory • Condemned as a witch, and burned at the stake
Hundred Years’ War (cont’d) • Impact of the Hundred Years’ War • Nationalism emerged in the two countries --NATIONAL IDENTITIES WERE FORMED • Power of the French monarch evolved • English suffered internal turmoil