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CHAPTER 14 QUIT The Formation of Western Europe , 800–1500 Chapter Overview Time Line Church Reform and the Crusades 1 SECTION Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution 2 MAP SECTION England and France Develop 3 SECTION A Century of Turmoil 4 GRAPH SECTION Visual Summary

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

CHAPTER

14

QUIT

The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500

Chapter Overview

Time Line

Church Reform and the Crusades

1

SECTION

Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution

2

MAP

SECTION

England and France Develop

3

SECTION

A Century of Turmoil

4

GRAPH

SECTION

Visual Summary

slide2

CHAPTER

14

Chapter Overview

HOME

The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500

The Church is revitalized but its Crusades fail to capture Jerusalem. Rising prosperity and trade create thriving towns. France and England develop more representative government. Bubonic plague and the Hundred Years’ War bring an end to the Middle Ages.

slide3

CHAPTER

14

1500

800

HOME

The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500

Time Line

987Capetian dynasty begins in France.

1096First Crusade begins.

1347Bubonic plague strikes Europe.

1215King John approves Magna Carta.

910Benedictine Abbey founded at Cluny, France.

1066Norman invasion of England.

1453Hundred Years’ War ends with French victory.

slide4

1

HOME

Church Reform

and the Crusades

Key Idea

A spiritual revival leads to Church reform, new religious orders, and the building of Gothic cathedrals. The Crusades, though unsuccessful, strengthen European monarchies and increase trade with the Middle East.

Overview

Assessment

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1

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Church Reform

and the Crusades

Overview

•simony

•St. Francis of Assisi

•Gothic

•Urban II

•Crusade

•Saladin

•Richard the Lion-Hearted

•Reconquista

•Inquisition

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades (religious wars) against Muslims and others.

The Crusades resulted in trade and exploration between Christians and Muslims but left a legacy of distrust.

Assessment

slide6

1

1

Section

Assessment

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

HOME

Church Reform

and the Crusades

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List six key events that summarize the Age of Faith.

1090sPope calls for the First Crusade.

1187Jerusalem

falls to Saladin.

1492Reconquista ends in Spain.

910

Benedictine monastery founded at Cluny.

1099Jerusalem

is captured by Christians.

1204Christian knights loot Constantinople.

continued . . .

slide7

1

HOME

Church Reform

and the Crusades

1

Section

Assessment

2. Which of the Church’s problems—marriage of priests, simony, lay investiture—do you think was most harmful to the Church? Why?THINK ABOUT

•the effects of each problem

•the reforms that corrected each problem

ANSWER

•Priests’ marriages undermined the authority of the Church.

•Simony rewarded wealth, not merit.

•Lay investiture made bishops the pawns of kings.

Possible Responses:

End of Section 1

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2

HOME

Trade, Towns, and

Financial Revolution

MAP

Key Idea

New farming methods and a growing food supply lead to expansion of trade and finance and the growth of towns. Interest in learning is revived as universities are established and ancient works are rediscovered.

Overview

Assessment

slide9

2

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Trade, Towns, and

Financial Revolution

MAP

Overview

•three-field system

•guild

•burgher

•vernacular

•Dante Alighieri

•Geoffrey Chaucer

• Thomas Aquinas

•scholastics

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

European cities challenged the feudal system as agriculture, trade, finance, and universities developed.

The various changes in the Middle Ages laid the foundations for modern Europe.

Assessment

slide10

2

2

Section

Assessment

Changes in Medieval Society

HOME

Trade, Towns, and

Financial Revolution

MAP

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe how medieval society changed between 1000 and 1300.

Agriculture improves

Population increases

Towns grow

Universities arise

Trade expands

continued . . .

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2

HOME

Trade, Towns, and

Financial Revolution

MAP

2

Section

Assessment

2. What was the effect of towns on the feudal system?

THINK ABOUT

•where the new townsfolk came from

•the saying “Town air makes you free”

•the changes experienced by townspeople

ANSWER

Towns undermined the feudal system by offering former serfs and new town dwellers economic and social opportunities. These burghers worked together to secure their freedom from lords.

Possible Response:

continued . . .

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2

HOME

Trade, Towns, and

Financial Revolution

MAP

2

Section

Assessment

3. How did guilds improve the quality of goods and business practices? THINK ABOUT

•who enforced standards of quality

•who could become guild members

ANSWER

•Guilds set standards for quality, weights, measures, and prices for their goods, such as a loaf of bread.

•An individual had to master a craft before becoming a guild member.

Possible Responses:

End of Section 2

slide13

3

HOME

England and

France Develop

Key Idea

England, united under the Normans, and France, united by the Capetian dynasty, take the first steps toward representative government. King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta, and Philip IV includes commoners in the council.

Overview

Assessment

slide14

3

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

England and

France Develop

Overview

•William the Conqueror

•Henry II

•Eleanor of Aquitaine

•Magna Carta

•parliament

•Philip II

•Louis IX

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

As the kingdoms of England and France began to develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved.

Modern concepts of jury trials, common law, and legal rights developed during this period.

Assessment

slide15

3

HOME

England and

France Develop

3

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Name each major step toward a democratic government and describe why it was important.

Parliament/Estates General

Included commoners/middle class in making laws

Magna Carta

Guaranteed basic rights

Courts

Centralized government

Led to a unified body of law in England and an appeals court in France

Policies of English and French kings applied to all

continued . . .

slide16

3

HOME

England and

France Develop

3

Section

Assessment

2. Contrast the way in which England and France began developing as nations. THINK ABOUT

•the character of William, duke of Normandy, versus the character of Hugh Capet

•the rise of the Normans to power in England

•the rise of the Capetians to power in France

ANSWER

William led an invasion of England in 1066 and granted fiefs to 200 Norman lords. Although Hugh Capet was a weak ruler, Capetians gradually consolidated their power.

Possible Response:

End of Section 3

slide17

4

HOME

A Century

of Turmoil

GRAPH

Key Idea

Church teachings are challenged, and the papacy loses prestige. The bubonic plague kills nearly one third of Europe’s population, and the Hundred Years’ War brings an end to the Middle Ages.

Overview

Assessment

slide18

4

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

A Century

of Turmoil

GRAPH

Overview

•Avignon

•Great Schism

•John Wycliffe

•Jan Hus

•bubonic plague

•Hundred Years’ War

•Joan of Arc

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

During the 1300s, Europe was torn apart by religious strife, the bubonic plague, and the Hundred Years’ War.

Events of the 1300s led to a change in attitudes toward religion and the state, a change reflected in modern attitudes.

Assessment

slide19

4

Long-Term Effect

Main Cause

Split in Church

Bubonic Plague

Hundred Years’ War

HOME

A Century

of Turmoil

GRAPH

4

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the main cause and the long-term effect of the three events listed below.

Choice of Urban VI as pope

Pope’s authority undermined

Social destruction and pessimism

Fleas carried disease

England’s King Edward III claims French throne

Promotes democratic institutions

continued . . .

slide20

4

HOME

A Century

of Turmoil

GRAPH

4

Section

Assessment

2. What problems did survivors face after the bubonic plague swept through their town?THINK ABOUT

•the number of dead

•the social, political, and economic chaos

ANSWER

Survivors had to bury the dead, provide for other survivors, replace town leaders and skilled workers, and try to rebuild their world.

Possible Responses:

continued . . .

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4

HOME

A Century

of Turmoil

GRAPH

4

Section

Assessment

3. Do you think John Wycliffe and Jan Hus posed a real threat to the Church? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT

•the two men’s ideas

•the condition of the Church at the time

ANSWER

Yes. Their ideas undermined the authority of the pope and the Church.

No. Their criticism of worldly, wealthy clergy and their call for a return to the authority of the Bible reflected sound Christian beliefs.

Possible Responses:

End of Section 4