CHAPTER 14 QUIT The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500 Chapter Overview Time Line Church Reform and the Crusades 1 SECTION Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution 2 MAP SECTION England and France Develop 3 SECTION A Century of Turmoil 4 GRAPH SECTION Visual Summary
CHAPTER 14 Chapter Overview HOME The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500 The Church is revitalized but its Crusades fail to capture Jerusalem. Rising prosperity and trade create thriving towns. France and England develop more representative government. Bubonic plague and the Hundred Years’ War bring an end to the Middle Ages.
CHAPTER 14 1500 800 HOME The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500 Time Line 987Capetian dynasty begins in France. 1096First Crusade begins. 1347Bubonic plague strikes Europe. 1215King John approves Magna Carta. 910Benedictine Abbey founded at Cluny, France. 1066Norman invasion of England. 1453Hundred Years’ War ends with French victory.
1 HOME Church Reform and the Crusades Key Idea A spiritual revival leads to Church reform, new religious orders, and the building of Gothic cathedrals. The Crusades, though unsuccessful, strengthen European monarchies and increase trade with the Middle East. Overview Assessment
1 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Church Reform and the Crusades Overview •simony •St. Francis of Assisi •Gothic •Urban II •Crusade •Saladin •Richard the Lion-Hearted •Reconquista •Inquisition WHY IT MATTERS NOW The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades (religious wars) against Muslims and others. The Crusades resulted in trade and exploration between Christians and Muslims but left a legacy of distrust. Assessment
1 1 Section Assessment 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 HOME Church Reform and the Crusades 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List six key events that summarize the Age of Faith. 1090sPope calls for the First Crusade. 1187Jerusalem falls to Saladin. 1492Reconquista ends in Spain. 910 Benedictine monastery founded at Cluny. 1099Jerusalem is captured by Christians. 1204Christian knights loot Constantinople. continued . . .
1 HOME Church Reform and the Crusades 1 Section Assessment 2. Which of the Church’s problems—marriage of priests, simony, lay investiture—do you think was most harmful to the Church? Why?THINK ABOUT •the effects of each problem •the reforms that corrected each problem ANSWER •Priests’ marriages undermined the authority of the Church. •Simony rewarded wealth, not merit. •Lay investiture made bishops the pawns of kings. Possible Responses: End of Section 1
2 HOME Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution MAP Key Idea New farming methods and a growing food supply lead to expansion of trade and finance and the growth of towns. Interest in learning is revived as universities are established and ancient works are rediscovered. Overview Assessment
2 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution MAP Overview •three-field system •guild •burgher •vernacular •Dante Alighieri •Geoffrey Chaucer • Thomas Aquinas •scholastics WHY IT MATTERS NOW European cities challenged the feudal system as agriculture, trade, finance, and universities developed. The various changes in the Middle Ages laid the foundations for modern Europe. Assessment
2 2 Section Assessment Changes in Medieval Society HOME Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution MAP 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe how medieval society changed between 1000 and 1300. Agriculture improves Population increases Towns grow Universities arise Trade expands continued . . .
2 HOME Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution MAP 2 Section Assessment 2. What was the effect of towns on the feudal system? THINK ABOUT •where the new townsfolk came from •the saying “Town air makes you free” •the changes experienced by townspeople ANSWER Towns undermined the feudal system by offering former serfs and new town dwellers economic and social opportunities. These burghers worked together to secure their freedom from lords. Possible Response: continued . . .
2 HOME Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution MAP 2 Section Assessment 3. How did guilds improve the quality of goods and business practices? THINK ABOUT •who enforced standards of quality •who could become guild members ANSWER •Guilds set standards for quality, weights, measures, and prices for their goods, such as a loaf of bread. •An individual had to master a craft before becoming a guild member. Possible Responses: End of Section 2
3 HOME England and France Develop Key Idea England, united under the Normans, and France, united by the Capetian dynasty, take the first steps toward representative government. King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta, and Philip IV includes commoners in the council. Overview Assessment
3 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME England and France Develop Overview •William the Conqueror •Henry II •Eleanor of Aquitaine •Magna Carta •parliament •Philip II •Louis IX WHY IT MATTERS NOW As the kingdoms of England and France began to develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved. Modern concepts of jury trials, common law, and legal rights developed during this period. Assessment
3 HOME England and France Develop 3 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Name each major step toward a democratic government and describe why it was important. Parliament/Estates General Included commoners/middle class in making laws Magna Carta Guaranteed basic rights Courts Centralized government Led to a unified body of law in England and an appeals court in France Policies of English and French kings applied to all continued . . .
3 HOME England and France Develop 3 Section Assessment 2. Contrast the way in which England and France began developing as nations. THINK ABOUT •the character of William, duke of Normandy, versus the character of Hugh Capet •the rise of the Normans to power in England •the rise of the Capetians to power in France ANSWER William led an invasion of England in 1066 and granted fiefs to 200 Norman lords. Although Hugh Capet was a weak ruler, Capetians gradually consolidated their power. Possible Response: End of Section 3
4 HOME A Century of Turmoil GRAPH Key Idea Church teachings are challenged, and the papacy loses prestige. The bubonic plague kills nearly one third of Europe’s population, and the Hundred Years’ War brings an end to the Middle Ages. Overview Assessment
4 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME A Century of Turmoil GRAPH Overview •Avignon •Great Schism •John Wycliffe •Jan Hus •bubonic plague •Hundred Years’ War •Joan of Arc WHY IT MATTERS NOW During the 1300s, Europe was torn apart by religious strife, the bubonic plague, and the Hundred Years’ War. Events of the 1300s led to a change in attitudes toward religion and the state, a change reflected in modern attitudes. Assessment
4 Long-Term Effect Main Cause Split in Church Bubonic Plague Hundred Years’ War HOME A Century of Turmoil GRAPH 4 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the main cause and the long-term effect of the three events listed below. Choice of Urban VI as pope Pope’s authority undermined Social destruction and pessimism Fleas carried disease England’s King Edward III claims French throne Promotes democratic institutions continued . . .
4 HOME A Century of Turmoil GRAPH 4 Section Assessment 2. What problems did survivors face after the bubonic plague swept through their town?THINK ABOUT •the number of dead •the social, political, and economic chaos ANSWER Survivors had to bury the dead, provide for other survivors, replace town leaders and skilled workers, and try to rebuild their world. Possible Responses: continued . . .
4 HOME A Century of Turmoil GRAPH 4 Section Assessment 3. Do you think John Wycliffe and Jan Hus posed a real threat to the Church? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT •the two men’s ideas •the condition of the Church at the time ANSWER Yes. Their ideas undermined the authority of the pope and the Church. No. Their criticism of worldly, wealthy clergy and their call for a return to the authority of the Bible reflected sound Christian beliefs. Possible Responses: End of Section 4